Application to Health Promotion and Health Behavior

Nursing Theory

“Discuss several aspects of professional communication as it relates to the use of language in terms of form (e.g., clarity, accuracy) and content (culture and/or ethics).” (Question, 2014, p1).

Communication is the reciprocal process where messages are received and sent between two or more individuals. Communication involves exchange of ideas, or opinion, which could be in form oral or written form. On the other hand, communication involves a series of information or message that people send out or receive using senses such as touching, seeing and hearing. However, professional communication is a basic tool in the professional practice, and a professional communication is a formal relationship that must follow certain rules and norms in order to make it more impressive and readable by another person. Typically, quality of communication is very critical in enhancing clarity and accuracy of communication system. While the professional communication system is generally based on the organization culture and ethics, however, the content of professional communication must be simple, clear and written in formal language to enhance clarity and quality of the communication.

Professional communication is very critical in a healthcare profession because it enhances safe and effective healthcare delivery. While communication is a basic concept, however, communication failures could lead to a disastrous outcome between nurses and patients. Personal appearance starts with professional communication and personal appearance includes:


Facial expression and eye contact,

Movement and gestures,


Pace of walking,

Physical characteristics,



More importantly, personal appearance should complement pace of speaking, tone of voice, and other nonverbal components. Following are the components of professional communication:

Use of proper grammar,

Speak with a clear tone and voice,

Careful listening,

Preparing with pertinent information. (AMN Healthcare Education, 2012).

2. “What is the role of the Advanced Professional Nurse in creating an ethical practice environment? Being a Nurse Educator, Respond to this question based on my Advance Professional Nurse.” (Question, 2014, p1).

Historically, ethics have been the primary focus of nursing profession. Since young nurses are required to follow the ethical guidelines in the professional practice, the advanced professional nurses are to play critical roles in enhancing ethical consideration in a professional setting. Thus, the roles of advanced professional nurse in enhancing ethical practice at clinical boundary are as follows:

To respect dignity of patients,

To deliver innovation and excellence in patient’s care,

Delegating tasks appropriately,

Practicing good judgment,

Alleviating suffering,

Be attentive to patients’ interests,

Work with nurse to enhance nursing practice and standard.

Moreover, the role of advanced professional nurses in a professional practice boundary is as follows:

Maintaining authenticity in all relationship between nurse-to-nurse relationships and nurse-physician relationship.

Evaluating and addressing issues such as impaired practice with patients, and nurse’s acceptance of inappropriate gifts from patients.

At self-development and self-care boundary, an advanced professional nurse should:

Participate in self-care activities in order to maintain moral self-respect, competence and professional growth.

Advancing knowledge through professional practice, research and education.

Promoting healthy practice by participating in professional organizations in order to address ethical and unsafe issues in the community.

An advanced professional nurse should maintain confidentiality pertaining patients, and family information. (Butts, 2008).

3. “Discuss the value of nursing theory to the profession of nursing. Identify one way in which you could use nursing theory to improve your practice ” (Question, 2014, p1).

Nursing theory is a set of interrelated definitions, statements and concepts that is predictive and explanatory in nature, propose to view a nursing phenomena, which assist in describing and explaining or predicting outcomes. Nursing theory guides professional conducts in nursing. Typically, nursing theory assists nursing professionals to understand patient’s symptoms and care. Essentially, nursing practice is strengthened when it is built on a sound theory. Theory assists nurses in analyzing and organizing patient’s data, which assist in understanding connection between patients’ data. Moreover, nursing theory assists nursing professional in making a sound clinical judgment, which assists, in enhancing planning in nursing professional practice. Major benefit of nursing theory is that it assists in measuring quality of care within nursing practice. Moreover, nursing theory assists in building common terminology in communicating with other health professionals.

Alligood & Tomey (2002) argues that nursing theory provides a solid foundation for patient’s diagnosis, assessment, and intervention. Typically, nursing theory provides a common ground to communicate between nursing practitioner and other healthcare professionals with respect to patient care. Other important value of nursing theory is that it solidifies nursing professionals as viable team member in order to deliver high quality healthcare. Thus, nursing theory allows healthcare providers to deliver valuable inputs in carrying out patients’ treatments.

4. “Read the AACN documents for essentials of baccalaureate vs. master’s education and identify the competencies that reflect use of theory and knowledge. Compare and contrast the competences for baccalaureate and master’s level.” (Question, 2014, p1).

There are three types of educational pathways to become a registered nurse:

Three-year diploma in nursing

Four-year baccalaureate degree

Master degree in nursing.

A baccalaureate degree is the most common type of nursing programs that prepares students for a successful nursing career. However, a master level is an extensive program that focuses on specialized areas in nursing. The graduate of baccalaureate degree works as a registered nurse in varieties of medical environments, however, master degree graduate are trained to deliver teaching, supervisory, and administrative roles.

Master level nursing program is designed to cover wide divergence clinical requirements making a new graduate to achieve a direct care experience in child health, adult health and community health. Essentially, master education in nursing is designed to deliver notable goals of developing students in analytical skills, and understanding strategy to connect theory to practice with direct goals of developing scholars to generate new knowledge. Additionally, a master level nursing serves important function in developing students in advanced clinical function and management role. Moreover, the master program prepares students in research in nursing profession, which ultimately prepares students for doctoral degree.

Distinct different between baccalaureate and master degree in nursing is that students who graduate with baccalaureate degree are trained to work in hospitals and other medical fields. However, nurses with master degree could take managerial roles in health organizations.

5 .”Explain in your own words, the difference between the three paradigms: human needs, interactive, and unitary process. Which of these best fits your philosophy of nursing”? (Question, 2014, p1).

The human needs focuses on the reduction and identification of stressors with nursing interventions. The model also focuses on factors that cause diseases on human being. Typically, clients are perceived as bio-psychological beings that are in needs of nursing care and if accurate information is collected about the cause of the problems, the problem can be measured and reorganized. The model argues that clinical intervention is very critical for clients.

On the other hand, interactive process reveals the interaction between nurses and clients and/or between clients and the healthcare system. The Newman model views human being as interacting whole, which their problems may be multi-factorial. Thus, intervention is unpredictable because client’s environment necessitates health interventions. While there may be an interaction between client’s goal and respective environment, however, client’s goal can only be met through interaction between clients and nurse.

Unitary process perceived human as an integral part of the universe, which shows that human beings are one and not divisible. The model also focuses on the manifestation of people, which enhances manifestation of human, and environments. The human model best fit the philosophy of nursing because human need focuses on the specific factors that cause disease on human being and identify the interventions that could be employed to reduce stressor on human. Unlike other models, the human need is effective in enhancing client health needs.

6 “Select one of the grand or middle-range nursing theories. How does the theory demonstrate evidence of the utilization of social, behavioral, or bioscience theories”? (Question, 2014, p1).

Self-care theory is an example of grand-range theory that comprises the activities performed independently by an individual to sustain health, life, and well-being. Similarly, self-care agency refers to the ability of an individual to perform self-care activities. On the other hand, self-care deficit refers to inability of a person to perform the self-care activities. To meet the self-care needs, nurses must intervene to meet the self-care needs of a person by acting supporting, teaching, guiding and providing an environment to promote self-care needs for patients. Essentially, the theory of nursing is basically centered on total care between education and advocacy. Thus, patients depend on nurse’s self-care activities to meet their self-care needs. While patients can meet some of their self-care activities, however, they still need assistance of nurses to maintain health and well-being. For example, when patients have a large burn at part of their body, they may be unable to perform self-care activities. (Habel, 2010). Based on bioscience theories, when nurses deliver self-care to patients within an intensive self-care environment, a nurse is performing compensatory framework. Nurses who care for patients who have burns on the part of bodies may need to follow the patients’ care after discharging from hospitals. As being pointed out by social theory. “Some burn nurses provide post-burn education to schools and industry as patients return to pre-burn activities. This level of care is consistent with the educative-development system.” (Habel, 2010 p 1).

7. “All nursing theories are developed in space and time, and are not value free. Select one nursing theorist and explain the factors that influenced development of the theory (history, scientific paradigm, and personal experiences — mentoring, education, practice, other).” (Question, 2014, p1).

Health promotion theory was developed in 1982 with the aim of educating clients on behaviors that affect their heaths. Typically, drug abuse, and smoking are part of social behaviors that may affect health of an individual. Smoking is number one health problem globally, which may cause health complications such as cancer, chronic cough and other health problems. Similarly, drug abuse can also cause health complication among those who take drugs. Thus, health promotion theory was developed to promote people’s level of well being. The goal of the theory is to use nursing professionals to educate people on the health impacts of drug abuse and smoking. According to the theory, self-awareness is very important for people well being and when self-awareness is blocked, it can result to misuse of substances that affect human health. Thus, the goal of health promotion is to enhance self-awareness, which assists individual to acquire knowledge about health. The strength of the theory is that it uses a scale “Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile” (Raingruber, 2010 p 1) to measure the dimension of health promotion on behavior of an individual, which include physical exercise, self-actualization, nutrition, and stress management. However, the model has been criticized on the ground that it focuses on disease center and life oriented health education paradigms rather than focusing mainly health promotion paradigms. (Raingruber, 2010).

8. “Select 3 theorist and compare the definition of person/human being. comment regarding which definition best fits with your own thinking.” (Question, 2014, p1).

Developmental theory is part of nursing theories that governs human growth. When a human develops a sickness, a healthcare provider investigates the cause of the sickness, and possible answers from family’s history, environmental factors or patient’s life styles. Identification of the cause of the sickness will make a healthcare provider to deliver possible to health solution to enhance human wellness.

Similarly, environmental theory is pertinent to nursing theory, which primarily focuses on patients. Typically, nurses manipulate the environment to enhance patient’s health recovery. Nursing intervention through environmental manipulation is centered on 13 canons and the important are as follows:

Keeping patients ventilated and warm,

Provide healthy houses for patients that include, clean water, efficient drainage and light,

Avoidance of sudden noise,

Documentation of amount of food given to patients,

Cleanliness of patient’s room,

Providing hopes and advice,

Nursing care theory is also a nursing theory that argues that the main function of nurses is to care for patients through activities that could contribute to health and well-being of patients. The theory reveals that a nurse must get inside the skin of patients to understand a patient’s needs. The definition of a nursing care theory best fit my own thinking because it focuses on the strategy to enhance health recovery of human being.

9.”Choose one of the middle-range theories. How could you use this theory to direct care in a nursing unit if you were the manager? Share your results.” (Question, 2014, p1).

Theory of caring is one of the middle-range theories that offers an explanation on the strategy nurses should employ to care for patients. The theory defines caring as the method of nurturing towards patients using personal sense of responsibility and commitment. As a manager of a healthcare organization, I will use the theory to enhance direct care using the following strategies:

First, I will organize a special training for all nurses working in my organization to use the theory of caring to convey emotion to patients as well as sharing patients’ feeling. It is very critical to understand patients’ feeling before implementing appropriate care for patients. A nurse who does not have a patient’s feelings will not be able to implement appropriate direct care to patients.

More importantly, I will organize a workshop for all nurses to understand the strategy to apply skillful methodology to enhance patient’s comfort.

Apart from providing training for nurses, I will ensure all the environment of the organization are free of disease through proper cleaning and disinfections to ensure that patients do not contact another disease. Proper cleaning of the environment is very critical for direct care of patients. These strategies will make my organization to provide an effective healthcare delivery.

10. “Choose one of the middle-range theories, What impact this theory most likely have on your individual practice? (a Nurse Educator I am pursuing), Give specific examples.).” (Question, 2014, p1).

The theory of inter-personal relations is one of the middle-range theories that primarily focus on the method that nurses should employ to relate to one another. Essentially, nurses-patients relationship is the center of caring. The theory has impact on individual practice because it speeds health recovery of patients. The theory is likely to have impact on my individual practice because the theory will enhance my greater understanding on the strategy to relate to patients. Typically, the theory will enhance my skills of interpersonal relations with other nurses and patients. Based on the theoretical perspective, it is critical to understand strategy to build effective relations with patients to achieve a brilliant career in nursing professions. Possessing inter-personal relation skills will assist me to understand patients’ needs and solutions to patients’ problems.

For example, when a patient has a problem that requires an intervention of a nurse, and to assist patients to enhance speedy recovery, a nurse needs to use therapeutic and interpersonal process and professional practice to deliver health care for patients. Thus, the theory builds my knowledge in understanding patients’ needs, which will be applicable to other patients in a similar health conditions. The knowledge accumulated will make me to build a brilliant career in the nursing profession.

11. “Which among the learning theories provided you with new information? How would you apply this in your practice”? (Question, 2014, p1).

Health promotion theory is one of the learning theories that deliver new information. The theory attempts to portray multidimensional method by which nurses could interact with physical environments. The health promotion theory is critical in the nursing practice because the theory assists in using applying variables such as body mass index, age, puberty status, demographic characteristics and personal psychological factors to promote health and well-being in the society. The health promotion theory is applicable in the professional practice because it will assist in:

Promoting health behaviors among people,

Promoting self-efficacy in the environment,

Enhancing benefits from environmental changes,

Supporting behavioral changes within the environment, and Managing barriers towards changes to healthy behavior.

The application of the theory will enhance my professional career in nursing practice.

12.”Comment on the usefulness of Benner’s work in your present or future role (Nurse Educator, my future role”). Provide several examples. (Question, 2014, p1).

Benner categorizes nursing practice into:


Advanced beginner,


Proficient, and Expert.

Benner believes that experience in clinical setting is the key to nursing profession, which allow nurses to continually expanding their knowledge in the professional practice. The research provides the difference between novice and experts in clinical practice. The Benner’s works assist in identifying novice nurse from expert nurse. As a nursing educator, it is critical to integrate acquisition of knowledge in order to seek for excellent nurses.

13. “Read the assumptions of social exchange theory and consider how these would affect the nurse-patient relationship, compared to how these impact the nurse within the health care environment. To what extent are all theories ethical? is social exchange theory compatible with the values of the nursing profession”? (Question, 2014, p1).

Social exchange theory argues the best method to analyze social interaction is by entering into relationships through which an individual could maximize benefits and minimize costs. Social exchange theory use cost-benefit analysis used to understand cost and rewards that an individual could derive from social relationships. Costs are the elements that have negative values in social relationships while rewards are the elements having beneficial relationships.

The social exchange theory affects patients-nurse relationship on the ground that both nurses and patients will derive rewards from the relationships. Patients will derive health benefits from the relationships because it will enhance a speedy health recovery of patients. Similarly, nurses can also derive satisfaction from assisting patients from attaining his or her well-being. The theory adds value to healthcare profession because it enhances a nurse understanding of human relationships. Moreover, it assists nurses to accumulate knowledge on nursing professional. More importantly, the theory contributes to the ethical value of a nursing profession because it enhances a greater understanding on the strategy patients and nurses could maximize rewards and minimize costs from patient — nurse relationships.

14. “Comment on at least three reports posted by other CLC teams. Provide substantive comments that include a focus on the application of the theory as a framework for practice (general or specific, basic or advanced)” (Question, 2014, p1).

The CLC teams argue that healthcare team can deliver substantial knowledge on breastfeeding. A counseling approach is to deliver information about breast-feeding which enhances appropriate support between mothers and infants. The CLC team delivers a report on importance of lactation management. The application of the theory is that it assists mothers to understand the importance of breastfeeding for their babies, which ultimately promote well being of infants.


Alligood M.R, Tomey, A.M. (2002). Nursing Theory: Utilization & Application .(3rd ed). Missouri: Elsevier Mosby Publications.

AMN Healthcare Education (2012).Professional Communication: Speak Up, Speak Well. AMN Healthcare Education Services.

Butts, J.B (2008). Ethics in Professional Nursing Practice. Chicago, Jones & Bartlett .

Croyle, R.T. (2005). Theory at a Glance: Application to Health Promotion and Health Behavior (Second Edition). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health.

George J.B. (2002) .Nursing Theories: The Base for Professional Nursing Practice .5th ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Habel, M. (2010). Nursing Theory At the Heart of Practice, Gannett Healthcare Group.

Raingruber, B. (2010). Health Promotion Theories, Chicago, Jones & Learning LLC.

Tomey A.M. Alligood. M.R. (2002). Nursing theorists and their work. (5th ed.). Mosby, Philadelphia.

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