Brain and behavior

          Brain and behavior

Introduction

The forebrain is divided into 4sections called lobes. There is the frontal lobe which is believed to be the management center, the parietal lobe which is accountable for spatial relationship, perception and magnitude. The occipital lobe which deals with visual information communicated from the eyes. The temporal lobe is engaged in memory and language. In this study the temporal and frontal lobes are elaborated on the types of behaviors when damaged (D & D, 2005).

Temporal lobe

The temporal lobe is situated in the bottom side of the brain and it is concerned with the memory functions. It has a dominant side that is concerned with the verbal memory and names of the objects, and a non dominant side that is concerned for non verbal material and visual memory.  Damage to this part can bring about eight types of problems. They include; disturbance of speech and language comprehension; destruction of the auditory perception and sensation; impaired long-term   memory; destruction of the selective visual input and attention of auditory; altered sexual behavior; destruction of the visual perception, and impaired categorization and organization of verbal material.

Wernicke’s speech area is one of the two parts of the cerebral cortex associated, since the late nineteenth century, to speech. It is concerned in the understanding of spoken and written language. It is usually thought to be inbrodmann area22, located at the posterior section in the superior temporal gyrus at the dominant cerebral hemisphere. Damage to the Wernicke’s area brings about receptive, fluent aphasia (D & D, 2005).

The major known damage caused on temporal lobes is auditory input. Left side lesions have effects in decreased remembrance of verbal and visual content, such as speech perception, While Right side lesions have effects on decreased recognition of many musical capacities, and  tonal sequences. It also influences recognition of visual content in the right side lesions.The temporal lobes are concerned with the primary association of sensory input Individuals and temporal lobes lesions have complexity when categorizing words and pictures. Temporal lobe damage affects language since the Left temporal lesions disturbs the recognition of words. Right temporal damage may cause a loss of shyness while talking.

The temporal lobes have lesions that are associated with memory skills which results in impaired memory for verbal matters. The Right side lesions are concerned with recalling of non-verbal material, like pictures, drawings and music. Temporal lobe Seizures can have dramatic effects on an individual’s personality. Temporal lobe epilepsy can cause paranoia, aggressive rages and speech as well as sexual behavior. The Common tests Afor temporal lobe function include: Rey-Complex Figure for visual memory and for verbal memory Wechsler Memory Scale – Revised.

Frontal lobe

Frontal lobe is situated at the brain’s front and has the right and the left frontal lobe. The right frontal lobe is responsible for non-verbal skills whereas the left frontal lobe controls language related movement. Generally, the frontal lobe is responsible for expressive language, impulse control, reasoning, initiation, Spontaneity, sexual and social behavior, motor skills and recognition. The motor cortex helps one make decisions between good and bad behavior and it is located at the back of the frontal lobe. The frontal lobes have lesions that cause emotional and personality control (B, 2000).

The frontal lobes are exceptionally susceptible to injury since they are located at the front of the cranium, nearness to the sphenoid wing and their big size. Research shows that the frontal area is the major area where of injury could occur following serene to modest traumatic brain damage. Damage to this of the part can lead to increased risk taking, changes in sexual and socialization habits. Disorder of motor function is normally portrayed by lack of strength of the hands, fingers and arms. Multifaceted shackles of motor movement are also controlled by the frontal lobes. A Patient with a damaged frontal lobe shows little impulsive facial expression, which indicates to the role of the frontal lobes in facial expression.

Broca’s Aphasia is known to be the difficulty in speaking and is associated with frontal damage. Broca’s area is a region in the frontal lobe of one hemisphere that is normally at the left of the hominid having functions associated to speech production. When Broca’s is damaged the patient losses his ability to speak to the brains posterior inferior frontal gryus. Research studies shows activation outlines in Broca’s area linked with various language tasks. But, slow damage of the Broca’s area by brain tumors can leave speech relatively undamaged signifying its functions can transfer to nearby areas in the brain.

Frontal lobe injury appears to have an impact on different thinking, elasticity and problem resolving capacity. Some research evidence shows a lasting interference with memory and attention even after one has recovered from a TBI. Patients with frontal damage exhibits less impulsive facial movements, speaks few words with left frontal lesions or extremely with right frontal lesions. A patient with frontal lobe damage has difficulty when understanding feedback from the surroundings. Non- compliance with rules, perseverating on a reaction, risk taking, and impaired associated learning are some characteristics of this type of deficit. The frontal lobes play part in spatial direction, thus our body’s orientation in. the most common effects of frontal damage is the theatrical modification in social behavior.

In addition, a person’s personality may be able to experience significant changes after damage on the frontal lobes, particularly when both lobes are involved. The right and the left frontal lobes differ in this region, thus the Left frontal injury normally seen as pseudo depression and right frontal injury as pseudo psychopathic. Sexual behavior could be affected by frontal lesions. This Orbital frontal damage may bring about abnormal sexual behavior, while the dorolateral lesions could diminish sexual interest. Some common tests for frontal lobe function are: Wisconsin Card Sorting are some common frontal lobe functional tests for response inhibition, token test are for language skills and finger tapping for motor skills.

Fore Brain

Conclusion

The current research shows that the arcuate fasciculus links the posterior receptive region with motor areas, and not to Broca’s area. Constantly the word identification site recognized in brain imaging, the uncinate fasciculus links frontal superior temporal regions to Broca’s region.

 References:

D, B., & D, B. (2005). Personality changes with frontal and temporal lobe lesions; Psychiatric Aspects of Neurologic Disease (illustrated ed.). New York: Grune & Stratton.

B, M. (2000). Some effects of frontal lobectomy in man; the frontal granular cortex and behavior. (illustrated ed.). New York: Mc Graw Hill.

Stuss, D. et al. (1985). Subtle neuropsychological deficits in patients with good recovery after closed head injury. Neurosurgery, 17 (P.41-47).

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