dark chocolate in reducing blood pressure

 

The article by Koli, Köhler, Tonteri, Peltonen, Tikkanen, & Fogelholm (2015) sought to determine whether dark chocolate was effective in reducing blood pressure. The researchers realized that there is a gap in research on whether dark chocolate helped in lowering blood pressure. The study, therefore, aimed at proving whether the proposition is correct or incorrect. The control trial allowed the study to use a control experiment and compare the outcome of the group with intervention and the other without interference. The sampling method was random and purposive. It included selecting participants with specific traits, such as having hypertension, to help in making accurate observations and conclusions. Fliers and newspaper advertisements got used to obtain participants randomly who met the inclusion criteria. There was a total of 22 participants who took part in the study.

Various instrument tools helped in measuring the variables to ensure reliability and credibility. One such tool is the Cardio-ankle Vascular index (CAV) assisted in measuring blood pressure. The nutrient and food intake got measured AivoDiet software, which ensured that the participants consumed the right food quantity and nutrients. Data analysis utilized a statistical approach such as IBM SPSS and produced quantitative findings. The article presented its findings using numerical figures such as mean in the various tables. The results revealed that blood pressure reduced in all the subjects throughout the research period. The systolic blood pressure got reduced by seven mmHg in all the participants.

On the other hand, the diastolic blood pressure got reduced by a mean of 3 mmHg in the participants throughout the study. The study thus concluded that the reduced intake of snacks and consumption of dark chocolate had no significant effect on cardiovascular risk factors. The experiment, however, indicated a decrease in body weight.

  1. Purpose

The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of regular dark chocolate consumption on blood pressure and other cardiovascular diseases. When the subjects are under reduced snack consumption. According to Koli, Köhler, Tonteri, Peltonen, Tikkanen, & Fogelholm, (2015), the study aimed at verifying the previous studies which stipulated that cocoa containing foods can lower blood pressure and improve endothelial function.

  1. Methods

Study Design

The inquiry used a quantitative approach in the quest to get answers. A randomized controlled cross over the trial was the study design used in the research. The model included 22 adults with hypertension in the study. The participants who took part in the study had a reduced intake of snacks during the research period. The participants instead took 49g of dark chocolate per day. The control subjects reduced their snack intake but did not receive any quantity of dark chocolate. Data got collected at the onset and the end of the research period to compare the outcomes of the two groups.

Sampling and Sample

The researchers used fliers and newspaper advertisements to look for the participants. There were different criteria used in the selection of the sample population because the selection was purposive to obtain a particular set of participants. Some of the requirements that the participants had to meet included having mild hypertension 140-159 mmHg (SBP) or 90-99 mmHg (DBP). The participants also had to have a BMI of more than 35kg/m2. In total, 22 participants took part in the study. The selection was also random because there was no particular order of choosing the sample. According to Koli, Köhler, Tonteri, Peltonen, Tikkanen, & Fogelholm (2015), there were two sets of participants, including the control trial sample and the research sample.

Instruments and Measurement

There were different measurement tools used to measure the various variables, such as blood pressure. The certified cardio-ankle vascular index (CAV) got used in taking measurements to do with blood pressure. The CAV index reflected the stiffness of the artery from the heart to other parts, such as the ankle. The body composition analysis device InBody720 helped in measuring the weight and body composition. Glucose got measured using the hexokinase method while the insulin got measured using the chemiluminescent immunoassay method. In measuring insulin sensitivity, the researchers used the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA). The measuring and calculating of food and nutrients got done using the AivoDiet software version 2.0.2.0.

Data Analysis

Data analysis got done using statistical techniques such as the IBM SPSS application. Different tests got used in analyzing data correctly to come out with findings that reflect the actual state of the research. The analysts used the Shapiro-Wilk’s W-test helped in analyzing the normality of the variables examined. The t-test helped in checking the differences between the variables at the baseline. ANCOVA helped in measuring the difference in variables between chocolate and control periods variables. The study then presented the results in tables presentation, which was easy to understand.

  1. Major Findings

The study came up with various findings regarding the efficacy of dark chocolate in reducing blood pressure. The results revealed that there was no significant difference in the measured variables at the baseline level. Blood pressure decreased slightly during the period of study. 12 of the 22 patients showed positive outcomes as they became normotension. There was a 7-mmHg reduction in the mean of systolic blood pressure. There was a 3-mmHg diastolic pressure in patients from the baseline till the end. In the case where there was no dark chocolate consumed, participants showed a reduction in weight by 1kg. There was no change in weight among the participants who took dark chocolate. The mean difference in weight decrease among the control group, and the latter was 1 kg. There was a change in fat body fat and fat mass among both groups, but it was not significant. The difference, however, had no significant impact on cardiovascular risk factors during the eight weeks. The changes that took place did not directly connect to the dark chocolate intake but rather the reduced consumption of snacks. The adverse effects that came out of the study were the reduced weight loss, and there were no other side effects of the experiment.

Credibility

The researchers used various methods to ensure the inquiry is credible. The instrument used in measuring the multiple variables, such as the blood pressure got approved by the authoritative bodies before getting used in the research. The principle of agreement got upheld by the researchers as they followed the proper methodology that was objective in their study. The research design was appropriate in comparing outcomes to determine the most effective intervention using a controlled trial. The reflexive journal used in recording observations every day also helped in ensuring that the findings were credible.

References

Koli, R., Köhler, K., Tonteri, E., Peltonen, J., Tikkanen, H., & Fogelholm, M. (2015). Dark chocolate and reduced snack consumption in mildly hypertensive adults: an intervention study. Nutrition Journal14(1). doi: 10.1186/s12937-015-0075-3

 


Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently
 

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects

Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.

Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!

Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.

Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.

Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.

Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.

Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!

Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.

Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper