Determination of Sex in Animals

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Determination of Sex in Animals

Introduction

 The topic of animal reproduction is wide. Some animals reproduce sexually and others have asexual reproduction. Both asexual and sexual reproductions have advantages and disadvantages. It is important for people to familiarize themselves with the topic of reproduction, as it is something that happens on daily basis.

Determination of Sex in Animals

There are various types of sexes in humans and amongst them include female and female pseudo hermaphrodites, hermaphrodite, male, and male pseudo hermaphrodites. Sex determination in animals is dependent on five birth factors which include existence or inexistence of chromosome Y, gonad type, inner and external genitalia as well as sex hormones. People have X and Y (males have XY pairing while females have XX pairing) chromosomes and their combination determines the gender of the newborn (Golden & Rhonda, p.640). For the formation of the XX genotype, females receive the X genotype form their father. Different from the females, men get the X chromosome from their mothers leading to XY pairing.

 Different from humans, the primary sex determination in mammals depends on either development of an ovary or testis from a potential gonad. However, the secondary sex determination in mammals involves the development of male and female phenotypes as a reaction to the hormones produced by ovaries and testis.

Advantages of Sexual Reproduction

Sexual reproduction has numerous benefits and one of them is that the offspring has a variance in genetic composition (Kiiker et al, P.400). Again, the offspring of sexual reproduction has high survival chances due to the genetic variation which makes adapting to new environments easy. Moreover, sexual reproduction gives humans an added advantage owing to the fact that the chances of a disease affecting all members of a particular population are low. Despite many animals reproducing asexually (which is advantageous as it is faster and only one parent is required), there exist many advantages associated with asexual reproduction. One of the major disadvantages of asexual reproduction is the offspring does not have a genetic variation.

Challenges Developed By the Aging Folks

 Living to old age is something the many people wish for themselves. However, aging comes with its fair share of difficulties. Due to their age, the elderly, in most instances, have increased prevalence to chronic health ailments. The recent report of the National Council of Aging has it that, a significant percentage of the old people have several chronic ailments, and those better, have at least one. Also, the probability of the old people having malnutrition issue is high and same is the likelihood of getting both physical and mental sickness (Schenker, Miriam, & Daniella, P. 1370). Statistics also prove that although cancer can affect anyone, the elderly are most prone it. Apart from health issues, the elderly folk also experiences social challenges.  The issue of boredom is common to many of the elderly people as they are mostly left alone in the house, as others go to work. Again, the elderly folk tend to fall into the devastating hole of depression due to lack of sufficient finances to cover for their daily needs yet their need keep on increasing.

Conclusion

  Based on the paper, it is apparent that the aging folks experience numerous problems ranging from increased prevalence to chronic diseases, to nutrition and social issues. Although the government is making an effort in catering for the medical needs of the elderly, it is parent that a lot still needs to be done.  The elderly should participate in less tiring mind-engaging tasks to avoid boredom and depression. The paper offers informative knowledge on determination of sex in animals.  From the paper, individuals learn that it is never the fault of women to give birth to kids of the same gender, giving that they do not have the Y chromosome.

Works Cited

Golden, Lisa C., and Rhonda Voskuhl. “The importance of studying sex differences in disease: The example of multiple sclerosis.” Journal of neuroscience research 95.1-2 (2017): 633-643.

Kiiker, Riinu, et al. “Outcome of sexual reproduction in the Phytophthora infestans population in Estonian potato fields.” European Journal of Plant Pathology 152.2 (2018): 395-407.

Schenker, Miriam, and Daniella Harth da Costa. “Advances and challenges of health care of the elderly population with chronic diseases in Primary Health Care.” Ciencia & saude coletiva 24 (2019): 1369-1380.

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