Security issues are today given priority by all countries and more specifically by governmental and private institutions. Researchers are doing studies on the best way to keep surveillance within specified institutions. An instance is a study done by Padgett et al. (2006). The study addresses the issues of under surveillance. The study is an empirical test that tests the effectiveness of electronic monitoring. It also brings out any possible consequences or costs associated with this kind of monitoring system. It is mainly associated with the serious offenders that are held in captivities such as in prisons. This papers aims to review the research including the research problem, methods used in the research, the study findings and the variables used.
Electronic Monitoring is termed as cost effective in the under surveillance of subjects within a given locality. It employs proven technologies as well as applications (William Bales, 2010,). Padgett et al. (2006) took the same technology as the basis of their study about effectiveness of Electronic Monitoring under the title, “Under Surveillance”. The study also was meant to check on the consequences associated with this kind of monitoring systems on serious offender held custody in the community. This was initiated an increased application of Electronic Monitoring systems currently and in the near future (Padgett etal, 2006 ). Users of this kind of technology have the urge to know how effective the system could be in terms of preventing criminal activities. Its associate costs could include new sentences on any violation against the new technical violations by criminals. To bring a solution to their study problem, effectiveness and consequences associated with electronic monitoring, the study used 75,661 offenders as the study sample (Padgett etal, 2006 ). These offenders were the in the home confinements particularly in Florida having stayed in custody from 1998 to 2002.
The authors used a quantitative research method in which data was drawn from a sample comprising of 75,661 offenders. These offenders had registered a home confinement period of more than four years, from 1998 to the year 2002. The sample comprised different types offender from which a comparative analysis was to be done. The comparative analysis was to get the risk difference between offenders of various sentence categories. A waited score on each category was used as well risk scores and a test of effectiveness of Electronic Monitoring in reducing failure on home confinement (Padgett etal, 2006 ). The three outcomes that included technical violation revocations, new offence revocations and absconding were used to carry out a regression analysis for proportional hazards.
After the analysis, the study had little support for net-widening effect as part of the findings. Electronic Monitoring was found to be associated with more violations. Offenders on home confinement with Electronic Monitoring system were more likely to committee a violation than whose confinements had no Electronic monitoring systems. Electronic monitoring was found to decrease technical violation revocation than increase it as far as the net-widening effect was concerned (Padgett etal, 2006 ). It was on the other hand found to reduce reoffending as well as absconding effects on home confinements.
The variable used in the study constituted both dependent and independent variables. The dependent variables were revocation for new offence, absconding, and revocation for technical violation. Revocation for technical violation measured the net-widening effect while both absconding and violation for new offence measured the public safety. Each of the dependent variable was used alongside independent variable that was based at whether the offender was placed on Electronic monitoring or not (Padgett etal, 2006 ).
The level of measurement of the independent variable was similar under the net-widening effects and public safety. This was the most important variable in the study. It brought to effectiveness the fact that Electronic Monitoring is not the only method of maintaining security. Other less costly methods could be used. Whichever method used, the pressure placed on them need to be in accordance with social values and civil liberties rather than pressuring on more control.
Kathy g. Padgett, w. D. (2006 ). An empirical test of the effectiveness and consequences of electronic monitoring,. Under surveillance vol 5, No. 1 , 61–92.
William D. Bales, K. M. (2010,). A Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Electronic Monitoring . NIJ Journal , 150-154.
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