Environmental and Root Cause Analysis Paper

Progistix, one of Canada’s largest thirst-party logistics service providers, specializes in providing companies with complete logistics in the technology, telecommunications, and retail industries. Progistix designs and executes customer-designed supply chain solutions for their client’s business-to-business projects, for their business-to-technician projects, and for their business-to-consumer ventures. Progistix specializes in dealing with businesses that require rapid-order time, precise order selection and delivery, and information-rich typefaces. It handles more than $2 billion worth of products and parts per year, accomplishing approximately 1.1million business-to-customer and business-to- business orders and approximately 350,000 business-to technician requirements. Its three prominent companies include Bell Canada as well as Xerox and Amazon.

This case involves Xerox.

In 1999, Xerox looking for ways to reduce inventory, whilst maintaining their level of customer service, employed Progistix to improve their service. Xerox became Progistix’s largest client representing approximately 80% of their Critical Part’s Network revenue. Progistix re-designed and ran the 14 parts depots and five supplies depots of Xerox assuming control for configuration of the systems, as well as information technology and processes at the depots. Progistix partners saw to the day-to-day operation of the depots as well as providing staffing.

The matter here was that although Xerox and Progistix were mutually satisfied with heir working relationship, after five years both were exploring ways to improve the network particularly since competitors had similar approaches.

The first objective was to improve depot operations. Specifically there were two operations one in Scarborough, the other in Toronto, and the one in Scarborough seemed to be under performing while the Toronto depot, located close to it, was exceeding performance requirements.

Secondly, inventory turns for the Xerox COPN had leveled during the past 3 years, and Gary wished to make improvements in this area.

Thirdly, Gary was looking for ways to do things differently in order to improve system-wide inventory turn performance specifically by seeing whether and how they could further reduce inventory requirements.

Issue Identification.

The issue is three-fold:

The first objective was to improve depot operations. Specifically there were two operations one in Scarborough, the other in Toronto, and the one in Scarborough seemed to be under performing while the Toronto depot, located close to it, was exceeding performance requirements.

Secondly, inventory turns for the Xerox CPN had leveled during the past 3 years, and Gary wished to make improvements in this area.

Thirdly, Gary was looking for ways to do things differently in order to improve system-wide inventory turn performance specifically by seeing whether and how they could further reduce inventory requirements.

The entire issue could be summed up as looking for a fresh way to make changes in order to improve their performance in a radically new manner whilst cutting inventory and reducing costs. A case that could serve as case study and observation for ways in which they could achieve their goals could be the Scarborough-Toronto situation where investigation could focus on possible reasons for the disparity in performance even thoguh Scarborough — under performing — had more technicians than its sister branch.

Environmental and Root Cause Analysis

At the time when Xerox contacted Progistix in 1999, they were employing approximately 1,200 technicians across Canada, with some in areas as remote as the Northwest territories. Service calls lasted for an hour to almost 2 hours and technicians were able to complete approximately 80% of their calls with the 110 to 150 stock keeping units (SKUs) in their kits, which represented an inventory value of approximately $3,500. Their total number of SKUs to service all technologies was 70,000 and technicians completed 95% of calls with 6000 SKUs. Parts and supplies were kept in two warehouses in Canada, their inventory was substantial, and remote depots were efficient. However, depots had much unused space and an excess of workers (two instead of the required one), as well as multiple carriers throughout Canada, each with different requirements and capabilities. This caused diversification in service deliveries. There was also no formal reporting mechanism and performance metrics were non-existent.

When Progistix took over, they provided common raining, measures, and performance objectives. Services also varied depending on regional needs and on higher-key clients.

A service call process typically ran in the following way: a technician diagnosed the problem at the customer site; of the technician did not have the needed part the technician contacted Xerox call center to request the part and the part was ordered on Xerox’s system; Progistix directed the order to the nearest depot; the part was picked, packed, and delivered to the technician; and used parts returned to the depot. The entire process took approximately 30 minutes. Each technician accomplished approximately 16.5 service calls each week with technicians assigned to smaller machines making more than those assigned to larger machines.

The Progistix delivery services lasted anywhere from 30 to 90 minutes depending on the customer’s location. Very remote locations were served by the next day. Their rate and response of delivery exceeded that specified in their contract to Xerox and they delivered approximately $142 value in parts. They also complied with Xerox’s strict inventory requirements, by keeping detailed inventory records, recording the time of each delivery and synchronizing inventory levels daily sharing their daily reports with Xerox. A quarterly review kept the company informed too.

The anomaly really was in the contrast between two of Xerox’s largest depots, Toronto and Scarborough. The Scarborough depot employed 81 technicians whilst the Toronto deports employed only 65 technicians. Two people staffed both. The problem was that that there were differences in their performance and Gary wondered how this could occur specially since both were relatively close to each other. With costs of delivery from the Toronto depot being $17.26 and rush orders costing $21.23, the Toronto depot was exceeding performance requirements, whilst the Scarborough depot only 30 km away, cost $21.43 on average deliveries, with rush orders averaging $31.78. Miscommunication also caused some of their deliveries to be occasionally delayed.

Xerox and Progistix shared a mutually satisfying working relationship. Gary’s intent was to explore the problem mentioned above, to see whether he could make additional improvements in their system and to improve their inventory turn performance.

Alternatives or Options.

Taking the Toronto-Scarborough case as basis for investigating ways to cut inventory and improve performance, we can extend analysis to the system as a whole. There are several issues that stand out between the two depots. Firstly, excess of technicians in the Scarborough depot (ratio 81:65) may complicate and slowdown the operation causing communication problems hence lagging in time of delivery and greater expense in delivering rush orders.

A second factor to investigate is the character and description of the technicians as well as the ways in which they interact with one another. It may be that conflict exists in their configuration and that redesigning of the workforce, particularly cutting it down to a smaller size, may help operations.

A third possibility may be in the personality of the two fill-time employers running he Scarborough setup. Again a comparison of these two employers contrasted with those employed by the Toronto depot may be instructive.

A thorough onsite observation and analysis of performance of both the Scarborough and Toronto locations would be helpful with points of contrast conducted. This could be conducted via research strategies such as observation, interviewing, focus groups, and survey. The case would be instructive by serving on the one hand (taking the Toronto situation) as data for improving Progistix performance and on the other hand (taking the Scarborough situation) as data for screening out and delimiting problems. In fact, even the Scarborough situation could serve, by highlighting causes of problems, to improving Progistix’s general performance.

Finally, when Xerox turned to Progistix in 1999, two of their concerns were deficiency in communication between service deliverers and non-existent performance metrics. It is unclear whether Progistix has seen to this problem. It may be that another of Xerox’s original problems has remained: that of excess of workers and of depots having too much space.

Recommendations and Implementation

What Progistix would be recommended to do in order to conduct an objective evaluation of the situation in order to implement change would be to implement various change-implmenting technieus.

One of the most helpful tools is Appreciative Inquiry that, starting from the organization’s strengths uses a different perspective to see from a different slant. Appreciative Inquiry (AI) believes that an organization that is built around appreciating what is best in itself, and expanding its inquiry on that, will develop in a positive direction (since, as with individual change, AI believes that organizations develop according to the focus of their inquiry). The essential objective is to build around what works rather than what doesn’t, to appreciate concrete success and to build from that (Cooperrider, Whitney, & Stavros, 2007).

Organizational development (OD) is another helpful tool. OD sees the organization as a holistic system, with the leader or change agent applying some sort of catalyst from the outside to move it in a certain direction. The change agent is usually a behavioral scientist employed to assess and ascribe change to the organization. He or she attempts to implement this change in as easy and persuasive a manner as possible (French & Bell, 1973).

OD views the whole organization as a system rather than as a distinctive aggregate of individuals (French & Bell, 1973). The objective here is not to generate new situations, but rather to deal with the problem or to, in this case, improve overall organization effectiveness. In an OD scenario, the organization is willing to solve the problem or to optimize its performance. It is the organization, in fact, that approaches (as in this case) the change agent for input, and the relationship is seen as a ‘helping relationship’ in the manner that both are involved in the change (French & Bell, 1973).

Another very useful way of exerting change is via “Complex Responsive Systems” (CRS) (Stacey and Shaw) and since CRS is particularly valuable for a larger organization and Progistix CPN operations is just that, I will elaborate on this method. “Complex Responsive Systems” hinges on two theses:

1. Communicative interaction is produced through meaning, and,

2. Goals are also constructed and negotiated within this web of communication.

In short, therefore, humans gain their learning through a mechanism of trial-and-error feedback. Knowledge resides in individuals and is transmitted and become available to others through language and/or though imitation. It is via this locked and closed circuit that information is conveyed, and the challenge, accordingly, becomes one of how to use its tacit knowledge, already residing in humans, for organizational growth.

As a contrast to key management theories, Stacey’s theory differs in that it posits that structuring and implementing goals should not be seen as the starting point to organizational change. Rather, goals are implemented within the internal circuit of human communication, and, therefore, priority should be accorded to initiating convivial communication within the organization whence goals and discussion on how to implement these goals can be discussed. It is during the self-organizing process amongst the individuals of the organization that new goals are formulated and new knowledge structured to meet these goals, and therefore, rather than discussing goals for an unknown future, organizational management should facilitate conversation about what people are doing at present.

Monitor and Control

Of optimistic value to Progistix is the CRS perspective that organizations can only grow when they are ‘at-the-edge-of-chaos’, meaning that they are neither too rigid nor too responsive to decay, but can reproduce themselves. Stability and ability to change must be balanced.

The communication should occur within the large interpretive framework of the group to inhibit miscommunication; it does not necessarily require steering by management but only for a general convivial atmosphere of shared communication.

In other words, an organization is not just thought of as an entity of individuals but rather as an organic living process of communications between a group of individuals who constitute the organization, and if this communication is managed well, novelty, creativity and constructive change can ensue.

The purpose of the manager in such a structure is to notice where blocks may ensue within the conversation, and to participate in such a way so as to assist in removing these blocks and in shifting the themes. She will also seek opportunities to speak to people from other organizations (in this scenario from other Xerox depots), and seek ways to introduce these conversational snippets into the conversations of her own workforce. She will be particularly concerned with trying to understand the covert politics and unconscious group processes that might be blocking conversation, or trapping conversation in repetitive themes. Managers, in other words, will serve as the watchdogs of the conversation and figure out ways of actively assisting communication to constructive ends when it seems impeded.

Progistix can, after conducting intensive research between its Scarborough-Toronto sites, and, perhaps, supplementing this with research on other sites institute the CRS method and observe whether effects / improvements are occurring. They can, alternately, alternate or supplement this with the OD and AI methodologies. Additionally, they can also set up about crating a performance matrix and assess whether reducing the workforce of the Scarborough depot and switching the facilitators of the site to another location may produce changes within the locations and introduce lessons to the improvement of their organization as a whole.


Cooperrider, D.L., & Godwin, L. (2010). Positive Organization Development: Innovation-inspired Change in an Economy and Ecology of Strengths. Appreciative Inquiry Commons. http://appreciativeinquiry.case.edu/intro/comment.cfm

Cooperrider, D., Whitney, D. & Stavros, J. (2007). Appreciative Inquiry handbook, San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler

French, W.L. & Bell, C. (1973). Organization development: behavioral science interventions for organization improvement. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

Luoma. J. Systems Thinking in Complex Responsive Processes and Systems Intelligence. In: Raimo P. Hamalainen and Esa Saarinen, eds. 2007. Systems Intelligence in Leadership and Everyday Life. Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo: http://www.sal.tkk.fi/publications/pdf-files/rluo07.pdf

Stacey, R.D. (1992). Managing the Unknowable: Strategic Boundaries Between Order and Chaos in Organizations. Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco, CA

Cooperrider, D., Whitney, D. & Stavros, J. (2007). Appreciative Inquiry handbook, San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler

French, W.L. & Bell, C. (1973). Organization development: behavioral science interventions for organization improvement. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

Weick, K.E. & Quinn, R.E. (1996). Organizational change and development, Annu. Rev. Psychol. 50, 361-86

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essay smile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper