Ethics & grounding for metaphysics of morals Quizlet
Aristotle Nicomachean ethics and Immanuel Kant’s grounding for metaphysics of morals by James Ellington and Terrance Erwin
Definition from the list of philosophical terms
Goodwill is doing good without consideration of the consequence
Duty involves following the laws of the society unconditionally
Morality is the observation of good deeds that in turn result in happiness
The reason is the application of rational and irrational thinking in one’s life.
Thoughts about relativism
Relativism states that all morality is derived from the cultures that human beings are accustomed to. Culture is a way of life in that a society bases all its decisions by the social rules of society. This places the responsibility of right or wrong on an individual due to the social background that they originate from.
Aristotle conception of the soul in all parts.
The soul is divided into three parts namely states of character, passion and faculties. Aristotle conception of the soul states that the soul is connected to all parts of a human beings body. The soul is accountable for several actions that an individual chooses to make.
Define happiness according to Aristotle
Aristotle’s take on happiness involves perusing all the factors in life that are worth having. This ranges from knowledge, friends and good health. Human beings search for these needs the whole of their life making them ultimate goals. The achievement of one’s goals leads to the happiness of human beings.
Define types of virtues.
Virtues can be divided into the virtue of intellect and virtue of morality. Moral virtue observes the moral composition of a society and the role of an individual in society. Intellectual virtue, on the other hand, looks at the virtues that are applied as a result of teaching.
Define types of virtues and their relationship to the soul.
The two types of virtues are moral virtues and intellectual virtues. Moral virtues involve following the thoughts of our soul to find what we think is right and wrong. Ethical virtues are determined by what the human soul perceives as right or wrong in relation to what human beings are taught.
Most important intellectual virtue for moral virtues
The most intellectual virtue is associated with virtue ethics which is defined by the observation of ethical codes when terns of knowledge and reason.
Moral virtue as a golden mean
This refers to the balance of different virtues which are met by the compromising of two opposing sides. Each virtue is placed between two conflicting traits so as to find a central point.
Moral virtue similar to health or strength
Virtues similar to health and strength involve training oneself to refrain for all actions that are deemed unhealthy to the human mind and soul. Sustaining the virtues gives rise to the creation of strength due to the application of routine.
Moral virtues as states of character and not passions or faculties
Moral virtues involve qualities such as hatred, envy, pity, joy, and feeling. Faculty refers to the capability of achieving these feelings. States of character involve the ability to apply the virtues of passion in moderation. The observation of states of character involves taking a stand on whether to have pity or not can be referred to as states of character.
Comparative definitions of temperance, insensibility and self-indulgence
Self-indulgence involves succumbing to personal thoughts as opposed to following the law that is in place.
Insensibility is the lack of regard for the laws and ethics that have been put in place.
Temperance is the observation of self-control from bad deeds so as to maintain one’s morality.
Temperance and continence
Continence is determined by the feelings that human beings have which are reflective of the virtues human beings display. Temperance is the display of the feelings which are associated with virtues of an individual
Self-indulgence and incontinence
Self-indulgence is different from continence in that it involves applying the thought that individual posses not considering the consequence.
Kant and the goodwill
Kant states that goodwill is only considered good if it is applied from a moral standpoint as opposed to the consequence of the act.
Happiness and consequence have no moral component
Four types of actions with regard to duty and inclination
Duty is performed as a result of the law that requires obedience to the rule put in place. There are four types of duties in relation to Kant’s laws of ethics namely honesty due to the fear of the law. The second duty involves self-preservation as an individual duty. Thirdly, display beneficence because of human beings responsibility to act sympathetic to others. Lastly to ensure that one acquires individual happiness as a duty and not an inclination.
Comparative definitions of hypothetical and categorical imperatives
Hypothetical- The hypothetical imperative involves observing the law depending on the situation of at the time. Human beings are not inclined to follow laws blindly.
Categorical -The natural law states that morality is rational in that all individuals should have the ability to determine right from wrong. This involves looking at the greater good of the society as opposed to individual needs.
Two versions of categorical imperative
The imperative of morality of duty which is not conditional
The imperative of performing moral acts due to personal choice
Definition of perfect duties
Perfect duties are defined by promises that an individual makes without the obligation of keeping the promise.
Definition of imperfect duties
Imperfect duties are duties that are based on reason and morally but give an individual the space to determine the terms of the application of the duty.
Necessity of freedom
Freedom involves following the natural laws that allow individuals to apply their own reason on right and wrong.
Ellington, James and Erwin, Terrance. Aristotle Nicomachean ethics and Immanuel Kant’s grounding for metaphysics of morals Oxford: Oxford Press, 2009. Print.
Kant, Immanuel, and Lara Denis. The groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals. Peterborough, ON Broadview Press, 2005. Print.
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