Health Care System between the U.S. And China
Over the last several years, the issue of the quality of health care services has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this, is because there has been a focus on how these shifts taking place in the population demographic (as a large number of people are becoming older). This will require the different health care systems around the globe, to make adjustments to these kinds of patients they will be serving and their needs. A good example of the overall severity of the problem can be seen by looking at a study that was conducted by the National Institute of Health. They found that there are currently 500 million people who are age 65 or older (worldwide). By the year 2030, this number is expected to increase to 1 billion or 1 out of every 8 people. (“Why Aging Population Matters,” 2007) This is significant, because it shows the underlying challenges that all nations must wrestle with when trying to addressing this problem. In the case of the U.S. And China, this could be particularly challenging, as both countries are struggling to maintain strong economic growth and tackle this issue. To fully understand the overall scope of the problem requires comparing the two health systems with how they can address the needs of the elderly population. To achieve this objective a number of different elements will be examined including: analyzing the Roemer Model of Health Services, each country’s health care system (based upon this model), the costs to provide these services, how they are delivered in each country, the advantages / disadvantages of each, the impact of Advanced Practice Nurses and identifying nonprofit organizations that support these goals in each nation. Together, these different elements will provide the greatest insights, as to the underlying challenges facing both health care systems in the future.
Define the Roemer Model of Health Services. Provide a summary description of the each component of this model.
The Roemer Model of Health Services is when you are looking at the total health care needs of the population. You would then examine various factors to decide the health outcome (based upon these various aspects). This is accomplished through analyzing a number of different elements to include: resources, management, organization, economic support and service delivery. Resources are when you are looking at the total amount of resources that are available in the health care system. Management is when you are examining how these different resources are being administered. Organization is when you are studying how the system is organized. Economic support is when you are analyzing the various economic factors that could have an effect on the health care system. Service delivery is when looking at the total quality of services that are being provided. These different elements are important, because it helps to specifically identify the needs of the population and how the current health care system is addressing these issues. Once this takes place, it will provide a greater understanding of the health care system and any kind of underlying challenges it could be facing. (“Health Systems,” n.d.)
Provide a description of the U.S. And China’s healthcare systems based on Roemer’s Model.
In the case of the United States the different resources, management and organizations are based upon a mixture of public as well as private entities that are providing these services. Where, it is the combination of these different programs working together to address the needs of each patient. Economic support is based upon the individual paying for a certain amount of health care services. At the same time, there is the use of private health insurance and select government programs (to cover all of the different expenses). The delivery of services is provided through a combination of: the individual, insurance and certain government programs paying for them. Where, they are provided through private or nonprofit health organizations. These different elements are important, because they are showing how the blending of these factors is used to provide everyone in the U.S., with various health care services. (Frances, 2005, pp. 51 — 60)
In the case of China, there is an emphasis on the government providing these different services to everyone. Using the Roemer Model, this means that they are directly involved in every single aspect of health care including: resources, management, organization, economic support and service delivery. These elements are important, because they are showing how in this health system, there is more centralized control over how these services are delivered (with limited privatization). (“Health Care in China,” 2006)
What is the cost to provide healthcare in both countries?
In the United States, the per capita costs for health care services are $6,714 or 15.3% of the total GDP. While in China, the health care costs are: $90.00 per capita or 4.5% of their GDP. This is important, because it is showing how the U.S. is spending more money on health care. (“Opportunities in the Health Care Sector,” 2006)
Define the vulnerable population and how health care is provided to this population in both the U.S. And China’s health care systems.
The most vulnerable population is: those individuals who are age 65 and over. The way health care is provided to this group (in the United States) is through a combination of government programs (such as: Medicare) and the use of private health insurance. (Frances, 2005, pp. 51 — 60) in China, there have been limited amounts of privatization (such as the introduction of some private health insurance plans). However, for the most part the government will play a central role in determining how health care is provided to this group of the population.
(“Opportunities in the Health Care Sector,” 2006)
Identify the elderly population health care coverage advantages and disadvantages for each country.
In the United States, the biggest advantages for the elderly population are: they have access to some of the most cutting edge procedures, there is large number of choices about health care providers and the elderly can be able to receive effective treatment for a host of conditions. The drawbacks include: the individual must pay a larger burden of expenses, various programs have restrictions upon the kinds of services that are being received and the underlying costs are continuing to increase. (Frances, 2005, pp. 51 — 60)
In the case of China, the different advantages include: lower costs for health care services and there is little to no financial obligations on the individual. The various disadvantages include: a lack of access to basic care (especially in rural parts of the country), there is limited choice and the different services could be subject to rationing. (“Opportunities in the Health Care Sector,” 2006)
Identify the impact of Advanced Practice Nurses (APN) for the provision of care in both countries. If APNs are not used in China, what is the role of the RN in this country?
In the United States, Advanced Practice Nurses (APNs) are used to help improve the overall quality of care that is being provided in primary health care facilities. This encompasses 200 thousand nurses, who can provide advanced knowledge and experience at a host of facilities around the country. This is important, because it shows how there is an emphasis for nurses to have some kind of advanced degree, to improve the underlying levels of treatment. (“More About RN’s,” 2011)
In China, they are taking a similar approach when it comes to APNs. However, the total number is considerably smaller with 24.0% of the total nurses having the APN designation. This is important, because it shows how there is an emphasis on improving the knowledge and experience of nurses. (“Advanced Practice Nurses,” 2010)
Identify global or philanthropic organizations that support the economic or health care development in each country. Summarize the type of support that is provided.
In the United States there are number of nonprofit organizations that support the health care system. These include: the American Lung Association, the American Heart Association, the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, the Diabetes Research Institute Foundation, the Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research, National Jewish Health Foundation and the National Multiple Sclerosis Foundation just to name a few. These different organizations provide economic support through: the constant funding of various conditions. At the same time, they help to sustain the health system through increased education and research. This is important, because it showing how nonprofit organizations are working with the public and private sector, to deliver a host of health care services (either directly or indirectly). (“Top Rated Charities,” 2011)
In China, there are a number of different nonprofit organizations that are helping to address issues affecting the health care system. However, these different groups are mainly based outside of the country. A few most notable include: the Carnegie Foundation, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Abbott Foundation. That being said, over the last several years there has been an emphasis on establishing Chinese-based non-profits, to address the underlying challenges facing the health care sector. A good example of this can be seen with popular Chinese talk show host Yang Lang donating $72 million, to start his own foundation to: help support and develop the health care system. This is important, because it shows how both international and domestic-based non-profits are addressing these underlying problems facing the health care sector. (Dobryzski, 2010)
Clearly, the biggest challenges facing the health care systems in the United States and China are vastly different. Yet, they are also wrestling with similar problems, as they face the issue of increasing numbers in the elderly population. In the case of the United States, this is challenging because there are a variety of disadvantages that must be addressed to include: they have access to some of the most cutting edge procedures, there is large number of choices about health care providers and the elderly can be able to receive effective treatment for a host of conditions. Some of the advantages include: the individual must pay a larger burden of expenses, various programs have restrictions upon the kinds of services that are being received and the underlying costs are continuing to increase. This is important, because it shows how the U.S. health system can address many of the underlying challenges facing this population demographic. While simultaneously; providing a number of different benefits that can help to address the needs of this group. In the case of China, they have a number of drawbacks as far as their health care system is concerned to include: lack of access to basic care (especially in rural parts of the country), there is limited choice and the different services could be subject to rationing. A few of the different benefits include: lower costs for health care services and there is little to no financial obligations on the individual. When you put these different elements together, this is highlighting the underlying challenges and possible advantages facing both countries when it comes to addressing these issues. As both are dealing with their own unique problems associated with their health care system. It is through understanding these differences and similarities that provides the greatest insights, as to how these underlying challenges can be addressed in the future.
Advanced Practice Nurses. (2010). Bukisa. Retrieved from: http://www.bukisa.com/articles/352958_advanced-practice-nurses-a-global-role
Health Systems. (n.d.). WHO. Retrieved from: gis.emro.who.int/HealthSystemObservatory/…/Conceptual%20frameworks. Ppt Health Care in China. (2006). IBM. Retrieved from: http://www-05.ibm.com/de/healthcare/downloads/healthcare_china.pdf
More About RN’s. (2011). ANA. Retrieved from: http://www.nursingworld.org/especiallyforyou/studentnurses/rnsapns.aspx
Opportunities in the Health Care Sector. (2006). Grail Research. Retrieved from: http://www.grailresearch.com/pdf/ContenPodsPdf/Opportunities_in_the_China_Healthcare_Sector.pdf
Top Rated Charities. (2011). Charity Watch. Retrieved from: http://www.charitywatch.org/toprated.html#health
Why Aging Population Matters. (2007). National Institute of Health. Retrieved from: http://www.nia.nih.gov/NR/rdonlyres/9E91407E-CFE8-4903-9875-D5AA75BD1D50/0/WPAM.pdf
Dobryzski. J. (2010). Philanthropy in China. Judith Dobryzksi. Retrieved from: http://www.judithdobrzynski.com/3009/philanthropy-in-china
Frances, M. (2005). The United States Health Care System. Community / Public Health Nursing Practice. (pp. 51 — 60). St. Louis, MO: Ensliver.
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