Health Information Credibility Term Paper



Health information resources are plentiful, particularly since the advent of the Internet. Reputable organizations, academic institutions, and accredited medical professionals maintain public websites, providing valuable health information freely available to patients and students in a convenient format. But the Internet environment is not restricted to qualified professionals, and just about anyone with access to a computer can publish anything he wants on virtually any subject of interest, whether or not he actually knows anything about the topic at all.

Even without access to an Internet connection, volumes of hard copy health information resources are no further away than the nearest public library. Books and other printed matter such as magazines and newspapers are slightly less convenient, but equally available to most. Books and other published forms of printed health information are more reliable than many Internet sources, but may also be inaccurate for several different reasons. To guarantee the quality and accuracy of health information, it is important to define objective criteria for evaluating the credibility of its sources.


Because the Internet is completely unregulated, (except for criminal activity), there is absolutely no guarantee that any health (or other) information yielded in online searches is truthful or scientifically accurate. For every Internet source of reliable health information, there are dozens (or more) of just as nicely constructed websites that promote erroneous information. Sometimes, it is simply material published by well meaning, people who are under-educated and/or insufficiently qualified to write about health topics. Other times, unreliable health information is published for profit, to promote commercial products and services, which, by definition, means that it is subjective and likely biased. It is also possible for commercially motivated health information sources to provide high quality information, but without criteria for evaluating various information sources, it is impossible to distinguish authoritative health information sources from unreliable sources.

Examples of reliable Internet sources of health information would include the online websites of government agencies, such as the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services ( the National Institute of Health ( (i.e. non-governmental) online sources of accurate health information would include the websites of accredited medical institutions of higher learning, such as Dartmouth Medical School ( websites of licensed, board certified physicians, such as of unreliable Internet sources of health information would include online encyclopedias such as Wikipedia (,which is not carefully monitored for the accuracy of its information, even though it may be perfectly suitable as a starting point for informal research. Other examples of erroneous health information available online are those featuring so-called “alternative” medicine such as,which promotes unscientific and dangerous “chelation” therapy. So-called “naturopathic” organizations such as the Colon Therapists Network ( maintain websites that advocate absurd quasi-medical procedures that have no scientific basis and are of no medical value, whatsoever.


Unlike the Internet, most of whose features and capabilities are available free of charge, book publishing requires a much more substantial financial commitment.

Generally, only professional book publishing houses have the resources to print bound books by the thousands, which is one reason why published books are more likely to be accurate than a random website that comes up in a simple Google search. However, in the last few years, the book publishing industry has changed significantly. Print on demand (POD) is a new, Internet-based publishing service that allows anybody to publish a book for a very small fraction of the cost of traditional publishing. Some POD services exercise at least minimal editorial controls and reject poorly written material, but their standards are much less stringent than traditional publishers, and some POD services publish anything for which a writer is willing to pay. Instead of printing thousands of copies of each book that must be sold to realize a profit, POD allows authors to simply format their text into PDF files, and print only one book at a time, to fill individual orders.

Even traditionally published books can be unreliable sources of health information, for a variety of other reasons. Accredited medical professionals sometimes disagree and write books detailing conflicting points-of-view; books whose information is now outdated are sometimes still available in libraries; commercial enterprises sometimes commission books to promote their health-related products and services through inaccurate or biased information; and so-called “vanity” publishing has always presented an opportunity to publish one’s own books for anyone willing to spend five or ten thousand dollars for the privilege.

One particularly good example of reliable authoritative non-fiction book (in general) is Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe, by Graham Allison (2004), and a good example of a health information resource book intended for lay audiences is What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Knee Pain and Surgery, by Ronald Grelsamer, M.D. (2002). According to his author’s biography, “Graham Allison is a professor of Government at Harvard’s John F. Kennedy School of Government and served as Special Advisor to the Secretary of Defense under President Reagan and as Assistant Secretary of Defense for Policy and Plans under President Clinton, where he coordinated DOD strategy and policy towards Russia, Ukraine, and the other states of the former Soviet Union.” According to the author’s biography, “Ronald P. Grelsamer, M.D. is the chief of hip and knee reconstruction at Maimonides Medical Center and a staff orthopedic surgeon at the NYU Hospital for Joint Diseases. A former clinical director of knee research at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center in New York, he has been listed in Castle Connolly’s America’s Top Doctors and in New York Magazine’s “Best Doctors of New York”

Examples of unreliable health information in book form would include Hold it! You’re Exercising Wrong, by Edward Jackowski (1995), and the Complete Book of First Aid, by John Henderson, M.D. (1955), once the Medical Director of Johnson & Johnson Co., which, despite its age, was still available in a local public library.

According to Mr. Jackowski’s author biography, he “… is the founder and CEO of Exude Inc., the nation’s largest one-on-one motivational and fitness company.” The author does not appear to hold any health science degrees or any other related credentials.

Doctor Henderson, was once an authority on first aid medicine, but because his book predates the invention of modern Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR), it advocates emergency techniques that have long-since been abandoned in favor of modern ones.

Magazines, Periodicals and Newspapers:

Subscription-based publications and those available for retail purchase often feature articles on health topics. In any given week, consumers read articles about a wide variety of medical issues ranging from the most serious, (such as heart disease and cancer), to the least serious, (such as male pattern baldness and toenail fungus). Some of these articles are written by professional scientific reporters, or even physicians, whose publications require them to use very diligent research standards. Other publications are much less strict and publish articles designed to increase readership rather than to disseminate accurate health information. Virtually any organization is capable of publishing its own magazine, including the Ku Klux Klan, communities of people who believe they are all survivors of UFO alien abductions, and those who maintain that NASA faked the lunar landings and all the other accomplishments of its space program.

Objective Criteria for Evaluating Sources of Health Information:

Freedom of Speech is an American constitutional right that allows anyone to publish almost anything he wishes, with very few categories of exceptions to that principle (Dershowitz, 2002). Consequently, it is necessary to employ objective criteria to evaluate the reliability of printed information, particularly in the case of health-related material, because of the potential for harm in following erroneous medical advice.

The credentials of authors (or their absence) is one important indication of whether or not they are legitimately expert in their fields, and the Internet provides an easy way of confirming the information included in their books, published articles and websites. Health information published by government agencies is likely to be factual, but should also be cross-referenced with the most reliable sources of such information, such as peer-reviewed medical journals and material published by fully accredited medical institutions of higher learning.

Board certified, practicing medical professionals are generally good sources of reliable health information, but sometimes they may choose to write about topics outside of their formal training. Likewise, because medicine is a dynamic field that always progresses, even sources that were qualified as authoritative when they were published can provide erroneous information, in light of more modern knowledge. More subtle types of questionable health information sources include materials published or commissioned by for-profit business entities, including those run by qualified health professional, in that the information they choose to publish might be perfectly accurate, but presented out of context or in the absence of equally relevant information to the contrary, such as about risks and contraindications not mentioned.

Ultimately, it is the responsibility of the consumer or student of health sciences to confirm the published credentials of authors, to double check any information that is more than a year or two old, to make sure that material published by credentialed authors relates to their specific areas of expertise, and to establish that companies publishing websites, books, and magazines are recognized as legitimately unbiased and without a financial interest in promoting goods or services dependent on their published health information, regardless of its factual accuracy.


Allison, G. (2004). Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe.

New York: Times Books.

Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age.

New York: Little Brown & Co.

Grelsamer, R. (2002). What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Knee Pain and Surgery. New York: Warner Books.

Henderson, J. (1955) the Complete Book of First Aid. New York: Bantam Books.

Jackowski, E. (1995). Hold it! You’re Exercising Wrong. New York: Simon & Schuster

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper