Income disparity and disenfranchisement

Mubarak instated sweeping reforms that liberalized Egyptian economic policy within a neoliberal framework, but those reforms came at the price of repression, oppression, and corruption leading to widespread income disparity and disenfranchisement especially among the male youth population. Inspired in part by a similar revolution in Tunisia, the protesters in Cairo successfully toppled the Mubarak regime and became part of what has been dubbed the Arab Spring. Critical to the 2011 revolution in Egypt were the participation of women in the political sphere and also the use of social media to facilitate, hasten, communicate, and organize the movement. One protestor famously said, “We use Facebook to schedule the protests, Twitter to coordinate, and YouTube to tell the world,” (Chebib & Sohail, 2011, p. 139).

Without a doubt, “social media played an instrumental role in the success of the anti-government protests that led to the resignation of the country’s dictatorial leader,” (Eltantawy & Wiest, 2011, p. 18). However, the role of social media may be overall less important than the demographic features of the revolution and the stagnancy of post-revolutionary Egypt. Social media did not trigger the movement but it was a critical “facilitator and an accelerating agent” of revolution (Chebib & Sohail, 2011, p. 155). The Internet certainly provided an alternative space for political momentum gathering and collective activity. “For any mass movement to take place, a space for communication is needed. A few decades ago, this used to happen in bookshops and underground newspapers’ offices,” (Chebib & Sohail, 2011, p. 143). Now in the 21st century, social media form and frame political space. The 2011 revolution would have happened with or without the Internet, but doubtlessly social media helped the protests be as organized and responsive as possible, and also helped the protestors communicate their messages to the world instantaneously, simultaneously gathering feedback and allowing the movement to spread throughout the Middle East as it had already done from Tunisia into Egypt.

The role of women in the revolution was even more critical than social media. “Women have played a central role in bringing about the success of the revolt that toppled Egypt’s 30-year-old Mubarak regime and dismantled its ruling apparatus,” (Hafez, 2012, p. 38). In fact, “women made up 20 to 50% of the protesters in Tahrir Square,” (Hafez, 2012, p. 37). However, the role of women in the Egyptian revolution was and remains dichotomous and paradoxical. On the one hand, women emerged into the public sphere — typically a patriarchal space reserved for the men who possess political power. The virtual public sphere of the Internet and social media also paralleled the public sphere symbolized by Tahrir. Social media did therefore help to democratize the revolution and enabled the emergence of women in Tahrir Square. There is an interface between the participation of women in the Egyptian Revolution of 2011 and the catalyzing effect of social media.

However, it is important also to point out that the aftermath of the revolution was anti-climactic and gave rise to intense misogyny and the simultaneous repression of mass movements that spread via social media. Hafez (2012) refers to the “marginalization of women in a post-revolutionary Egypt,” almost as if it were a direct backlash to their revolutionary participation in a traditionally patriarchal society (p. 40). “Violence toward and abuse and harassment of women are the outcome of masculinity built on hate and deprivation and is therefore one of the core factors underlying” the lack of responsiveness of the post-revolutionary government to the actual needs of the majority of Egyptians (Hafez, 2012, p. 40). Also, the Revolution meant losing institutions of social order. Winegar (2012) mentions the “continued lack of basic security after the revolution,” and the need for police reform because in actuality the police were one of the primary targets of revolutionary reform (Winegar, 2012, p. 70).

The Egyptian Revolution therefore needs to be understood both in terms of neoliberalism and intersectionality, even more than through the overly simplified proximal issues of gender and social media. Joya (2011) claims the Egyptian revolution and Arab Spring in general “has to be understood in the context of neoliberal economic shift,” (p. 367). Ironically, the neoliberal economic shift actually facilitated in part the breakdown of patriarchal authority even while Mubarak proclaimed himself to be a “benevolent, omnipotent father as state leader,” (Hafez, 2012, p. 39). Mubarak’s role as father played into a patriarchal consciousness that theoretically supports the will of masculine power, leading to the subordination of women. That subordination is often tacitly or even explicitly accepted as part of a Faustian bargain in which power is given over in exchange for economic protections. A victory in Tahrir Square offered for the first time an opportunity for women to play an important role in the political reconstruction of their country. The opposite happened because patriarchal power is too difficult for patriarchs to surrender. “The more that males are subordinated, denied patriarchal benefits, and associated with females, the more extreme their gender differentiation from females will be,” (Hafez, 2012, p. 40). The Revolution pointed out the flaws in patriarchal neoliberalism, but had no cohesive answer.

Unfortunately, a “politics of disappointment” has emerged, “which comes in part from framing the revolution as a youth-led teleological process,” (Winegar, 2012, p. 69). Understanding the Egyptian Revolution requires an understanding of how patriarchal power continues to shape Egyptian culture and values. If the Egyptian people can understand how intersectionality works, the future promises “positive developments such as the rise of political parties, independent trade union federations and other social groups aiming to participate in rebuilding a democratic society,” (Joya, 2011, p. 367). Patriarchal power is what breeds the very same inequalities that led to revolution in the first place. Meaningful change can only be expected if women play as active a role in politics as in protest.


Aouragh, M. & Alexander, A. (2011). The Arab Spring| The Egyptian Experience: Sense and Nonsense of the Internet Revolution. International Journal of Communication 5(1):15

Chebib, N.K. & Sohail, R.M. (2011). The reasons social media contributed to the 2011 Egyptian Revolution. International Journal of Business Research and Management 2(3): 139.

Eltantwany, N. & Wiest, J.B.(2011). The Arab Spring| Social Media in the Egyptian Revolution: Reconsidering Resource Mobilization Theory. International Journal of Communication 5(1): 18.

Hafez, S. (2012). No longer a bargain: Women, masculinity, and the Egyptian uprising. American Ethnologist 39(1): 37-42.

Joya, A. (2011). The Egyptian revolution: crisis of neoliberalism and the potential for democratic politics. Review of African Political Economy 38(129): 367-386.

Winegar, J. (2012). The privilege of revolution. American Ethnologist 39(1): 67-70.

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper