Maurizo Viroli has vital information to people who are interested in matters concerning nationality. He believes that people should not waste their time trying to find out the nature and scientific definitions of nationalism and patriotism. Instead, more focus should be on what it means to love a country. This crucial information will be obtained from prophets, agitators, poets and scholars. The different views, which are presented, by people has made the words nationalism and patriotism not be known by many people. The view point on internal hermeneutic is responsible for ensuring that global citizenship is achieved. The republic is of valuable concern to many patriots and has various reasons to support this notion. For example, the republican life allows people to have a lot of freedom and thus a reason why it is popular.
On the other hand, cultural and spiritual unity among people is valued as well as upheld by those in support of nationalism. The nature of republican life is an issue, which is not treated as it deserves most times. There are different love types that exist and are often expressed by nationalists and patriots. According to patriots, love is meant to be generous as well as charitable. This means that people who are well off should be helped as a result of the republican love, which exists. Political freedom is an issue that needs to be addressed as it is related to patriotism. Values of a nationalistic nature should be banned as they are a determent towards achieving a republican status. Citizens of a country should always aim at achieving loyalty that is univocal.
An antidote, which is powerful in solving the matter concerning nationalism, is patriotism among republicans. The former often leads to directing, strengthening and resuscitating people’s passions. It lays emphasize on people’s historical and cultural identity, as opposed to approving rational agents that are interpersonal. It can be claimed that as the world is being affected by globalization, people are aware about their obligations as well as rights. This means that matters concerning patriotism are being ignored as they are of no value. People should aim at embracing patriotic republicanism, which is contemporary. According to Nathanson, people should obey the power, which rules and governs them. They should only question it if their lives are being threatened. This concept is similar to that, which is presented by Maurizo Viroli.
The writer Martha Nussbaum is known for being a classicist as well as influential. According to her, patriotic people owe their loyalty to other citizens and their country. This means that patriotism is against the fundamentals of cosmopolitanism. The latter encourages individuals to think in a globalised manner. They are often taught to be world citizens, and Nussbaum is a firm believer of this notion. She believes that patriotism is required if cosmopolitanism is to succeed. The power of legitimacy is upheld by the states, and its citizens have to abide by it. When people are, required to approve of the political legitimacy it does not mean that they are being patriotic. Rather, they are following what their power has established, and authority dictates that they do so. This means that the love they have for the state is not voluntary, but rather it is forced. This love is known to be induced as citizens are subjected and persuaded to follow their political authorities.
Citizens should at all times demonstrate that they are capable of expressing their collective responsibility. They have to be aware of what it means to be patriotic and mostly on matters concerning justice. People who are patriotic are often informed on matters concerning justice. Forms of justice, which exist in society, should bring effective racial relations that are distributive and productive. Citizens should always make decisions that are of high quality as well as ones, which are moral. The democratic ideals, which exist in society, should be upheld by various citizens. Cosmopolitan considerations should always be made as it comes with various distinct responsibilities. People have a duty of being cosmopolitan in order to deal with the problems that exist concerning patriotism.
As a result of using the same reasoning as Socrates, it will be possible to find out more about Nussbaum’s reasoning. Globalization has ensured that people believe in the same ideologies but convincing them will be extremely difficult. In higher institutions of learning, students are being taught on how they can become liberal. In order to solve errors and excesses, cosmopolitan pluralism must exist. In conclusion, the arguments presented by Maurizio Viroli demand that patriotism is in need of being revived, and this is true. Furthermore, globalization has affected people’s perceptions concerning citizenship and patriotism. Moreover, Nussbaum’s arguments on the needs to have citizens who are cosmopolitan is extremely true as well as beneficial. Indeed, republicanism should be enhanced so that people are aware about the need to attain political freedom.
Viroli, M. (1999) .Republican Patriotism. Oxford: oxford University Press.
Nussbaum, M. (2002). Patriotism and Cosmopolitanism. New York: Beacon Press.
Heater, Derek. (1999). What is Citizenship. New York: Polity.
Nathanson, S. (2001). Should We Consent to Be Governed 2nd Ed. New York: Wadsworth.
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