Oil, Food and the Coming Crisis in Agriculture

Paarlberg, R. (2008). The ethics of modern agriculture. Society. Vol. 46 (1) 4-8.

This is one of the few works that directly addresses the topic, where the author outlines the utilitarian calculus of modern agriculture as the basis for analyzing its ethics. There have been dramatic positive changes from modern agriculture techniques, he notes, at least in the short run. The author notes that there is a sort of apparent conflict in warning others not to make the same mistakes that we have made, even as we continue to make the same mistakes, and reap the economic rewards of those mistakes. On one hand, we are not wrong to caution others, on the other hand, we are unwilling to follow our own good advice. The factory mentality of today’s farms has given rise to a number of ethical dilemmas, and this arises most clearly with the case of meat. We eat far more than we need to, yet it is the most wasteful and cruel element of the agricultural system. The author uses these examples and others to sum up the ethical dilemmas faced by modern agriculture, which has boosted short run productivity, but at significant costs that are typically hidden from the consumer.

Pfeiffer, D .(2011). Eating Fossil Fuels: Oil, Food and the Coming Crisis in Agriculture. New Society Publishes: Gabriola Island, BC.

This book outlines the role that fossil fuels play in the modern agricultural system. The author notes that much of modern production increases owes itself to fossil fuels, and that as our supply thereof runs low, we will find it difficult to sustain our current levels of food production. This is not even taking into account climate change, which will further challenge our abilities to feed ourselves. The author uses a number of examples to highlight the challenges that will be faced when our agricultural system — so dependent on fossil fuels — no longer has access to those inputs. The book provides some interesting background information and argument about this subject.

Rice, J. & Garcia, S. (2011). Fisheries, food security, climate change, and biodiversity: characteristics of the sector and perspectives on emerging issues. ICES Journal of Marine Science. Vol. 68 (6) 1343-1353.

This article examines the coming world to 2050, including projections for population growth, climate change, fisheries and food production. The authors note that to meet projections, fisheries production needs to increase by 50%, something that is unsustainable. This is an interesting perspective on the issue, because this is one area where there might have been potential to maintain food production in the face of declining agriculture, but it appears that it will be unsustainable or outright impossible to do so. The authors also note that experts on these different subjects tend to operate in silos, when they should be working with each other to solve these problems, with more urgency.

Rosset, P. (2011). Food sovereignty and alternative paradigms to confront land grabbing and the food and climate crises. Development Vol. 54 (2010) 21-30.

The author begins with the proposition that, if we are not facing it already, the world will be facing a multitude of different crises simultaneously in the near future. A paradigm shift, he argues, is necessary, in order to meet these crises head on. The author makes an interesting point, and perhaps points to a resolution of the ethical dilemma at the heart of the article. The ethical dilemma is focused on our inability to resolve the people or environment battle, but the other argues that is a false dilemma; that in fact it is possible to find new paradigms of living where there is better balance.

Neff, R., Chan, I. & Smith, K. (2008). Yesterday’s dinner, tomorrow’s weather, today’s news? U.S. newspaper coverage of food system contributions to climate change. Public Health & Nutrition. Retrieved April 22, 2015 from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=

This article begins with the proposition that our food is a contributor to climate change, something that has broad-based scientific acceptance. The authors surveyed newspapers over a period of time to identify how much press the issue of food’s contribution to climate change has received. The thinking is that people are more likely to change their behaviors if they are educated, and the press plays a critical role in that education. The authors found low levels of coverage, but that the levels of coverage were increasing gradually, over time.

Khor, M. (2009). The Food Crisis, Climate Change and the Importance of Sustainable Agriculture. Third World Network: Penang, Malaysia.

This short work highlights the need for sustainable agricultural practices, in particular those that do not rely on fossil fuels. Eventually, unsustainable practices collapse, so therefore it is important for agriculture to sustainably feed a population. Thus, it is important for scientists to focus their energies on sustainable agriculture, rather than on squeezing out incremental gains from the existing system. This again is framed as a paradigm shift, in particular towards developing food security.

Rosenzweig, C. & Perry, M . (1994) Potential impact of climate change on world food supply. Nature. Vol. 367 (13 Jan 1994) 133-138.

This article looks at the threat that climate change poses to the food supply. This is an important piece of information because it reflects the outcome of the dilemma — our current paradigm is something that puts millions at risk, so there is clearly a cost to the “do nothing” option of pursuing short-term gain. The authors note that the impact of climate change on global agricultural output is not expected to be significant — or at least back then — and that it would be felt mainly in the developing world. This piece is a bit dated on the science, but it is interesting because it shows that this has been talked about for a long time, and that there are going to be impacts from climate change on our ability to feed ourselves.



Provide outline of topic

Background info

Thesis statement

Overview of the Issue

The world has a growing population

Agriculture resources are not growing and if anything are shrinking

The increase in agriculture output has been driven by technology

Fossil fuels play a critical role in the global food system

As these become more scarce, they will be unable to play that role

This puts the entire food system at risk

The Dilemma

The crux of the dilemmas is that we need to choose between feeding people today and the health of the planet tomorrow

This is a dilemma because people will die either way; there is no good answer

Utilitarian calculus is difficult to conduct, but we have historically chosen the short-term — is that the right choice?

Possible Solutions

Are there solutions available within the current paradigm?

Or is a paradigm shift needed?

Sustainable agriculture is that paradigm.

There has been work on this to help change the system enough that the ethical dilemma no longer exists.


Neff, R., Chan, I. & Smith, K. (2008). Yesterday’s dinner, tomorrow’s weather, today’s news? U.S. newspaper coverage of food system contributions to climate change. Public Health & Nutrition. Retrieved April 22, 2015 from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=

Paarlberg, R. (2008). The ethics of modern agriculture. Society. Vol. 46 (1) 4-8.

Pfeiffer, D .(2011). Eating Fossil Fuels: Oil, Food and the Coming Crisis in Agriculture. New Society Publishes: Gabriola Island, BC.

Rice, J. & Garcia, S. (2011). Fisheries, food security, climate change, and biodiversity: characteristics of the sector and perspectives on emerging issues. ICES Journal of Marine Science. Vol. 68 (6) 1343-1353.

Rosset, P. (2011). Food sovereignty and alternative paradigms to confront land grabbing and the food and climate crises. Development Vol. 54 (2010) 21-30.

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper