Qualitative Research Questions and Phenomena

Managment Challenges in Emergency Services


Qualitative Research Questions and Phenomena




Many emergency management budgets are small having the tendency to lean towards statistical significance with variations from one issue to another. For instance, small standard deviation of figures varies based on strength of the issue. These figures suggest many of the emergency management functions are performed within a given public safety unit. In this proposal, the safest option is for the emergency management offices to provide coordination functions in case of occurrence of any emergency issue. To manage emergency budgets, both the private and the public must do what is necessary to minimize losses incurred due to such occurrences (Cherry & Jacob, 2008). A budget-conscious management is always important in any organization because it helps in set an outline for costs and enables improvement on weak financial areas. Thusly, aiding organizations (in most cases) with achieving their objectives within the budget timeline. Profit generation becomes key for any organization and budget management is critical. Most companies suffer from the inability to provide and counteract emergence issues because they go unnoticed.


2.0 Background to the Problem


The overall budgeting process begins when the budget passes the legislative review, thus being officially adopted. The preliminary review is followed. The budget is then consolidated into the final budget that will handle any potential emergency issues. The total requests are then estimated into revenues. In most cases, after the budget has been reviewed and approved, the budget should be taken to the legislative body mainly for approval before allocation of the budget to the required emergency issues (Hayes, Ninemeier, & Miller, 2012).


Another main problem stated in budget allocation is planning. Planning of the budget starts with the selection of the task force, which is consists mainly of the representatives from all kinds of agencies. In addition, the task force must consider any related sources of revenue to overcome the problem of mismanaging the budget. Furthermore, an emergent issue like fire, has a large magnitude needing the facilitation of great effort to overcome. Thus, the department of firefighting must take part in resolving such matters. In cases where fire happens to destroy the owners building, the municipality that is entitled to manage it will have lost real estate tax that then must be budgeted. In addition, there will be several people affected with the same occurrence who need compensation. The budget planning for this case will be more strenuous in handling these kinds of emergency issues (Witham, 2010).


In budgeting, it is important for the financial team to come up with a method of brainstorming and give the best solutions for the organizations to bring it to its full potential of resolving emergency issues. Another example where there is a necessity for all emergency issues to stay within the budget is in the production and labor. Both the production and labor work hand in hand to ensure that all the costs incurred must be limited to plan for any occurrence of the emergency issue. In this case, labor plays an important role by ensuring that the budget remains predictable (In Rylee, 2011).


One example where labor functions in budgeting is showing the important variance in covering the agencies budgeted with errors that have the tendency to allow for any unplanned emergencies. The errors in the budget are in most cases used in examining the closely related reviews. All other mathematical errors in any budget that can be detrimental are always overlooked. However, simple mathematic error can also be problematic and sometimes hard to correct. Another budget variance that is mostly observed is the tendency of most budget organizers in not considering the occurrence of unexpected events. Here, they should always reserve capital which will cater for such events (Witham, 2010).


The main problem with the budgets is that most of them are not examined perfectly. Therefore, in comparing with the personal own finances, budgets tend to be anomalous. The idea of having a saving account is better for unexpected events. When there is no reservation for such events, the organizations will be more likely to apply for an unplanned loan to accommodate for the occurred event. In some occasions, competitive benchmarking can also be used to reduce the cases of unplanned budgets. The strategic benchmarking in this case will help companies in making comparison with those nationwide. This is important in planning for emergencies. Furthermore, all tight budgets are likely to reduce community’s reliance on disasters. The community resilience stems from activities e traditionally linked to emergency management. However, communities financial mean that all the educational attainment, infrastructure and social capital are involved in the budget. Therefore, several states have already taken part in cutting both the public and private budgets to control the misuse of funds. In addition, the average number of unemployed people continues undermining the individual resilience (Cherry & Jacob, 2008).


The emergence management budgets are always small but are strategically important and vary from one region to another. All the small significant variation for any mentioned region indicates that there is real variation from one region to another (Tracy & Barrow, 2011). The above figures indicate that the emergency management functions by providing all the solutions to the problems.


3.0 Literature Review


The literature review provides an overview over the current literature on the topic of emergency issues with focus on budgeting, frameworks and principles utilized in maximizing the budget on emergency issues. As a core unit in disaster management, all the emergency departments tend to influence the public concerning the perception and community inclination in budgeting for emergency issues. Additionally, they provide all the services that are required in times of calamities. The emergency department provides vital services to all people who are present with critical urgent conditions. The emergency departments are in most cases not seen in copying all the changes that occur during the emergency times.


In responding to such matters, they normally ensure that all the services they offer are sufficient. Traditionally, the emergency department was mandated to offer charitable services but currently they move from one place to another with the aim of providing services to all affected people (Bumgarner, 2008).


For instance, if an emergency happens, people with less serious conditions, people with less injuries require less attention. The methods used in identifying the peer-reviewed literature were first identified using current knowledge, which is based on all optimal staffing in emergency departments. In this case, the following approaches can be utilized:


• A clear search for the emergency databases that should be conducted in the affected area.


• The key academic reviews which relates well to the emergency department.


• Field inquiries budget for the area conducted


• In redefining the emergency department, the staff need to meet all demands to any changing services (Bumgarner, 2008).


4.0 Methodology


The methodology used for analysis was based on EPPI Centre methodology, which aims to review systematically all emergency programs. The budget experts were informed about the importance of conducting this kind of review in a wide range of research. The places targeted included hospitals, big business centers and both the governmental and nongovernmental institution. The research strategy agreed by all the research team that constituted a pilot search was important in managing the targeted budget. The final search list was also used in reviewing the cash, consumer directed care and the direct payment. All the terms were adopted and later tabulated per the search functions and syntax of each database (Ketchen & Bergh, 2006).


Screening of identified studies was performed through the use of title, abstract and full text. The questionnaire was as a second form of methodology of budgeting for emergency issues. The quality of the studies was also appraised with the aim of assessing the extent at which the budget for conducting an emergency should be conducted. The tools that were used included a number of all the overall risk that was unbiased. In addition, there also the overall risk of bias that was assigned to each kind of study to establish the average domain scores (Ketchen & Bergh, 2006).


Another methodology that was included in the study was continuous focus. The project proposal ran on the frequent budget management, reinforcing all the possible ways of ensuring the budget was suitable to all people. This was important because frequent oversight ensured the budget would remain controlled and stable. In addition, the proposal suggests that a 10% budget is needed to overrun because it is easier than 50% overrun which can cause more loss in balancing such a budget. There is also an idea about regular forecast resource usage. This is done to ensure that the budget is maintained constantly by keeping it on track. Therefore, if there is any change on resources required, then the people organizing for the budget will consider the need to balance the budget. Thus, all the project managers maintain their position to review all number of people who are working on the budget (Banks & Giliberti, 2002).


In solving the emergency issues of the project team, they must be well informed. This empowered team takes all the ownership of the related project proposal (Banks & Giliberti, 2002). When the team is well informed over budget status, they will be more likely to correct any error that might occur during budgeting. In addition, they will be more likely to watch any change on the budget. The team should also manage all scopes meticulously. This is the section where any changes may be better detected. It helps the budget managers to be more careful and be in a position of creating any change regarding the occurrence of potential emergency issues. The budget must also be within the stipulated projects, which will keep the stakeholders and the management in a good manner. Thus, the emergency issues will be successfully being handled.


4.1 Research Questions


The budget proposal will discuss the importance of developing research questions and hypothesis, which defines the objectives of the research paper. Research questions lead to creation of a research proposal. The questions which arise here are paramount to the outcomes of resolving the emergency issues before they reach potential for concern. The main challenge in developing the research questions is that, sometimes it very difficult to answer all the questions that relates to the budget. Therefore, the research question helps one to increase the knowledge in preparing the budget. The appropriate methods for analysis of research questions is identified (Brook Lapping Productions, 2005).


It is imperative to understand what has been studied and if it is applicable or not. Additionally, research questions can be developed based on various principles, which must be taken into consideration when asking questions. Both the primary and secondary questions should be developed at the time all the research questions are being generated. In this case, the primary questions include questions that affect the budget directly. For example, the primary questions that need to be answered are:


1. Which is the specific area of interest that has been affected?


2. What are the investigational intervention of the budget managers?


3. What is required to be accomplished in this kind of budget?


4. When is, the best follow up time in assessing outcomes?


Research questions need to address all areas to generate the best study design. The questions potentially lead to a better hypothesis rather than just raw data. It sounds intuitive but if taken with good considerations, all the database information will be potentially used in performing the multiple statistical comparisons of a given data.


The hypothesis tested must be null. The main purpose of this hypothesis testing is to make an inference about any emergency issue based on the random sample taken. Generally, the entire null hypothesis which precedes a research hypothesis must be with no difference in the mean functional that is based between the computer-assisted insertions on the placement techniques. Another important aspect is testing whether the hypothesis will be one sided or two sided. The two-sided hypothesis states there is no difference between the experimental data and the control data. However, it fails to specify an advance that is expected on the direction of the difference (Brook Lapping Productions, 2005).


4.2 Qualitative Research Questions and Phenomena


The qualitative research accounts for the number and approaches visible in budgeting for emergency issues. All the completed procedures on the phenomenological methods that must be identified in the research studies are done at this level. This kind of procedure involves multiple stages that aid in data collection. The main two primary characteristics of this design are constant comparison of data that has many emerging categories and the theoretical sampling featuring maximum similarities and other differences in the information given (Brook Lapping Productions, 2005).


Phenomenological research forms the main inquiries which helps the researcher in identifying any human experiences concerning emergency issue that is selected. In addition, it involves study of small, but extensive and prolonged engagement in all developed patterns relevant for the required budget (Ketchen & Bergh, 2006). Therefore, recognizing all the methods that limit budgeting is very important. The concurrent procedures also help the researchers in converging all the quantitative and qualitative data to provide very comprehensive information about the budget. The research method that is used in budgeting requires major elements that goes into the research approach and various method of data collection and analysis. The quantitative approach has been a useful approach for a research proposal. It also employs all the strategies which involves collection of either simultaneous or sequential in understanding research problems.


The qualitative data collection involves gathering both the text information and the numeric ones. Researchers test this by specifying the narrow hypothesis and other related method of data collection. Qualitative approaches help in collecting constructivist knowledge, ethnographic design. All the experimental designs are used in assessment of both the data before and after other experiments. This data collected is then analyzed using statistical and the hypothetical testing. The budget management team will base all the inquiries on the assumption that all the emergency issues are planned systematically (Ketchen & Bergh, 2006).


4.3 Rationale Methodology


In controlling the budget for emergency issues, most of the government agencies tend to have very few standards mandated in providing services to the public. For instance, when the budget increases, the costs also increase, thus the management team must work by increasing the money allocated for the projects. In addition, they will be more likely to watch any change on the budget (Fay, 2002). The team should also manage all scopes meticulously. This is the section which keeps the scope aware of any changes that may occur in the budget. It helps the budget managers be in a position of creating any change regarding the occurrence of emergency issues.


The budget must also be within the stipulated projects which will keep the stakeholders and the management in good terms. Thus, the emergency issues will be successfully handled. Another example where there is a necessity for all emergency issues to stay within the budget is in production and labor. Both the production and labor work hand in hand to ensure that all the costs incurred must be limited to plan for any occurrence of emergency issues (Fay, 2002). In this case, labor plays an important role by ensuring that the budget remains predictable. One example where labor functions in budgeting is showing the important variance in covering the agencies that are budgeted with errors and tends to allow for unplanned emergencies.


5.0 Significance of the Study


Budget management helps in keeping an eye on the targeted prize. The budget helps in figuring out long-term goals with the aim of achieving them. Budgeting for emergency issues forces one to map out goals, saving money and keeping progress on dreams. In addition, it helps one in saving the lives of others. More so, it ensures that one does not spend money on things that are irreverent (Drucker & Maciariello, 2008). This is done through creating a sticky budget which satisfies all the required channels. Thereby, in planning for the budget, it is always important to keep in mind miscellaneous issues which may arise on the way. The budget also sheds light on bad behavior, like overspending.




Budget management is always important in any organization because it helps in guiding costs and tends to improve weak financial areas. In budgeting, the research question helps one to increase knowledge in terms of preparing the budget that can then be sustained for a longer period. The appropriate methods of analyzing research questions is identified. The research questions are answered mainly through current literature and studies. It is important to understand what has been studied and if it is applicable or not. Additionally, the research questions can be developed based on various principles, which must be taken into consideration when answering. Finally, the budget has some weaknesses, which need to be examined. Therefore, in comparing with personal own finances, budgets tend to be anomalous. Therefore, the idea of having a savings account is better in preparing for unexpected events.




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Banks, A., & Giliberti, J. (2002). Budgeting. Macquarie Park, N.S.W: Mcgraw-Hill.


Brook Lapping Productions. (2005). Questions. London: Teachers TV/UK Dept. of Education.


Bumgarner, J. B. (2008). Emergency management: A reference handbook. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.


Cherry, B., & Jacob, S. R. (2008). Contemporary nursing: Issues, trends & management. St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.


Drucker, P. F., & Maciariello, J. A. (2008). Management. New York, NY: Collins.


Fay, J. (2002). Contemporary security management. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.


Hayes, D. K., Ninemeier, J. D., & Miller, A. A. (2012). Foundations of lodging management. Boston: Prentice Hall.


In Rylee, C. (2011). Integrated resource and budget planning at colleges and universities.


Ketchen, D. J., & Bergh, D. D. (2006). Research methodology in strategy and management. Amsterdam: Elsevier JAI.


Tracy, J. A., & Barrow, C. (2011). Understanding Business Accounting For Dummies. Hoboken: John Wiley & amp; Sons.


Witham, S. (2010). Creating great graphic design to a budget: Planning, sourcing, designing, finishing. Hove: Rotovision.

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