Resource depletion, global poverty and starvation

Sustainable Development

Is it really required?

The world is naturally stable, and there is little that we can do to enhance stability regardless of which policies we pursue. This paper will argue that concerns about warming, resource depletion, global poverty and starvation are generally self-correcting and a natural part of progress. This contention runs counter to the broad consensus in OECD countries, but deserves a further consideration.

We live in a very short span of time in geological and even biological terms. In order to add some perspective to this paper, the author will include two earlier predictions: those of the Club of Rome in 1972, and those of Thomas Malthus (1766-1834). In addition, the economic thought of two economists will be cited, including Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Milton Friedman (1912-2006).

Malthusians and Marxists: Commonalities of Thought

Thomas Malthus and Karl Marx started from a similar presumption: the resources of the world were essentially constant. In Thomas Malthus’ most famous work, an Essay on the Principle of Population (1798), Malthus predicted that the population would grow while food supply remained constant, thus leading to starvation (Malthus 1798).

Marx’s thinking was similarly influenced by scarcity. He was a disciple of the French economist, Say, who through “Say’s Law” (Hollander 2005) postulated that demand was driven by the supply of goods. Since, the supply of goods was limited, and the population was increasing, it was clear to Say that there were winners and losers as the global resource pie was being divvied up and passed around.

Marx took Say one step further, to say that there are those who produce things — the laborers — and those who live off the work of the producers — the capitalists. It was clear to Marx which party was getting more, and which party was deserving of more.

Gaps in Malthus and Marxist Ideology

Both Malthus and Marx (and by extension, Say) missed an important concept: progress. Progress in the form of innovation created a bigger pie. Innovation is more than new product ideas. It can be quite diverse; for example:

The aforementioned discovery of the potato in South America. This introduction to the UK agricultural scene during the 1700’s created an explosion of agricultural productivity, which resulted in many more calories per acre being produced with fewer laborers. The resultant capital and labor freed up due to the potato was a major contributor to the Industrial Revolution (Duchesne 2004).

The major changes in overall productivity wrought by the Industrial Revolution: As a result of automation, innovation in manufacturing, and better logistics, the world’s wealth — and wealth per capita — rose dramatically faster than population.

The improvements in well-being due to trade and comparative advantage. As the world lost its mercantilist policies and pursued freer trade (evident even in the time of Malthus and Marx), the world’s inhabitants became richer. (Economist 2007).

Modern Malthusians and Marxists: The Club of Rome

The Club of Rome produced a book in 1972 called “The Limits to Growth. (Meadows 1972). This book famously predicted that the world would fall to pestilence and famine, as the amount of resources used would climb exponentially with the population explosion

Simply put, the Club of Rome was wrong. Since 1972, population has indeed carried on rapid growth, but per-capita incomes have risen even faster. From 1972, when China and India could not feed their populations, both have become food exporters. The Club of Rome made the same mistake as their “limited world” predecessors, Malthus and Marx. They thought of people as reactive automatons, unable to change their behavior or their consumption. The Club of Rome should have known better. The “Green Revolution,” which increased the world’s production per acre of grains by a factor of five, had started in the 1960’s. The Chinese peasant, allowed to farm 1/2 acre and sell his produce since 1965, had increased overall Chinese food production by 30% by 1972.

The Reality: Resources are Expanding

It seems illogical, or nearly paradoxical, that as we use more resources, our resource pool keeps growing, but that is in fact the case. This is true for three reasons:

New methods of finding and extracting resources (ore, oil, gas, other) have allowed us to increase the amount of reserves substantially-to the point where we have more global reserves of most important minerals and energy today than we did in 1972.

We have become more efficient in what we produce, partly due to the increase in the price of resources.

Our economy has changed in the developed world. For example, a ton of steel and an Intel computer chip sells for about the same number of dollars: we’re producing a lot more chips and a lot less steel than we used to in OECD countries. Since a chip only requires a few grains of sand, the world’s resources are preserved.

What about sustainability?

If “sustainability” means the ability to maintain and even improve our way of life on this planet, there is little chance that present trends will be reversed. Despite growing to nearly 7 billion people, humanity today is better fed, lives longer and enjoys more resources than ever before. As China approaches $10,000 per person in income, they will have undergone the same changes as those of us in OECD countries: fewer goods, more services, less pollution, better standards of living.


There is no harm in recycling our garbage or buying smaller cars — if that’s what we as individual consumers want to do. In choosing these options, we join the rest of the richest in the world — the richer we get, the better we conserve.

The modern “sustainability worriers” make the same mistake as Marx, Malthus and Say. They assume that the pie is constant, and growing populations will suffer. The truth is that the pie is growing even faster than the number of mouths to feed.


Duchesne, R. “On the Rise of the West: Researching Kenneth Pomeranz’s Great Divergence.” Review of Radical Political Economics, 2004: 52-81.

Economist. “This week in comparative advantage.” Economist, 2007: n.p.

Hollander, S. “Two Hundred Years of Say’s Law: Essays on Economic Theory’s Most Controversial Principle.” History of Political Economy, 2005: 382-385.

Malthus, TR. An Essay on the Principle of Population. London: J. Johnson, 1798.

Meadows, DH, Meadows, DL, Randers, J and Behrens, WW. The Limits to Growth. New York: Universe Books, 1972.

Wrigley, RS. London. London: Cambridge University Press, 1981.

Sustainable Development

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper