The intrinsic rights and basic moral sense

Animal Rights

Introduction glance at the news is enough to reveal that few people are genuinely concerned about the welfare and plight of animals in the United Stated and in the world. For example, PETA Org recently launched a campaign against a large company for extreme animal abuse. There are numerous examples that occur daily of personal, corporate as well as institutionalized violence and cruelty afflicted against animals. This lack of concern forms the central crux of this paper. The question that this poses is why do people, who are normally caring and considerate, tolerate or even ignore cruelty and abuse of animals. How can this uncaring attitude exist in normal society? Does this cast a shadow on the idea that our society is normal and balanced?

An aspect that my thesis will consider is that by and large people have become blind to animal cruelty as a result of social and commercial conditioning.

The fact that animals are living beings with a basic right to ethical and moral treatment seems to be dismissed in our society at large. In exploring this topic I will also take into account factors such as economics, social factors, agriculture and the commercial factors in the abuse and mistreatment of animals.

What are animal rights?

Animal rights simply refer to the intrinsic rights and basic moral sense that sees all life as important and connected. It refers to a basic ethical respect for all living beings. Cruelty and abuse to any living being is an infringement of these basic ethical human principles. This is made worse when those who are abused are animals that cannot speak or defend themselves. Similarly, the abuse of animals is an infringement not only of these basic rights that all living beings should enjoy but it also casts as shadow on the morality and meaning of human nature itself. Animal rights are defined by the Animal Rights Movement as follows.

The fundamental principle of the AR movement is that nonhuman animals deserve to live according to their own natures, free from harm, abuse, and exploitation. This goes further than just saying that we should treat animals well while we exploit them, or before we kill and eat them. It says animals have the RIGHT to be free from human cruelty and exploitation, just as humans possess this right. The withholding of this right from the nonhuman animals based on their species membership is referred to as “speciesism.”

ANIMAL RIGHTS FAQ FILE)

The organization also states that “animal rights activists try to extend the human circle of respect and compassion beyond our species to include other animals, who are also capable of feeling pain, fear, hunger, thirst, loneliness, and kinship.” (ibid) As a result of this attitude they state that they cannot support inhumane activities such as factory farming, vivisection and the exploitation of animals for entertainment purposes.

3. The abuse of animals

Despite a wide array of organizations who publicize and communicate the reality of animal abuse, most people in the United States never give a thought about the plight of animals and the cruelty that is afflicted on them. Gary Francione in his article Animal Rights and the Future states that Recent surveys show that a majority of the population expresses some endorsement of the animal rights position, and most people are horrified when they become aware of the details of exactly how that steak got to their dinner plate. But at the same time there are more animals being used in more horrific ways than ever before.

Francione. G.)

It is estimated that over 8 billion animals are consumed for food every year. However, this is not even the crucial issue – it is rather the way these animals are raised or ‘cultivated’ and slaughtered that is the central cause for concern. “These animals are transformed into meat through a process known as “intensive agriculture,” which is shorthand for rearing practices that cannot be described as anything other than barbaric.” (ibid)

The conditions under which many animals are bred for food are horrific and should appall any decent human being.

Pigs live their lives in stalls, unable to turn around or to escape the suckling of the constant streams of litters that they are forced to have; calves live confined in small crates in dark, windowless buildings; laying hens are confined four to a cage measuring 12 inches square; broiler hens are confined so severely that cannibalism and disease kills many of the birds. (ibid)

Animal experimentation is also another area in which there is alarming abuse and even torture of animals for so-called scientific ends. There are many reported cases and evidence of animals being used in experiments where they are not only confined but often shocked, burned and mutilated in various ways.

What is of particular concern is that legally the human beings conducting the experiments are allowed to withhold anesthesia if anesthesia would interfere with the results of the experiment. (ibid) What is possibly even more alarming is that some of our most respected educational institutions have been implicated in horrific and cruel animal experiments.

An example is the case of Columbia University that was recently fined for the killing of puppies.

In order to avoid an embarrassing hearing before an administrative law judge, Columbia University has paid a $2,000 fine to the U.S. Department of Agriculture USDA) for egregious violations of the federal Animal Welfare Act, including killing an entire litter of puppies by cardiac puncture, a method condemned by the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA).

Columbia University Fined for Cruel Puppy Killings)

The report goes on to state that the puppies were not properly sedated at the time of their killing. There are numerous examples that can be found in the media every day – and each seems to be more horrific than the last. For example, the following headline shows an extreme lack of concern for animals. “Live Cat Found In Freezer with Euthanized Animals” (Live Cat Found In Freezer, 2004)

The above examples again pose the central question of this paper – why do educated and seemingly ethical people ignore or condone cruelty to animals? A central reason is simply refusing to see the reality of the situation. Many people, including educated scientists, close their eyes to the fact that animals are living beings with feelings. They tend to see the animal as the “other” that, not being human, cannot feel pain or discomfort. “Researchers claim that animals are unlike us, so that we need have no moral concern about our exploitation of them.” (Francione G)

However, it is not only scientists who ignore the feelings of animals and see them as the “other.” A terrible example of cruelty to animals that had nothing to do with science, or even logic, is the custom of pigeon killing. On Labor Day of every year in Hegins, Pennsylvania shooters pay about $100 to shoot and beat to death about 8000 pigeons. (ibid)

Actions like this raise questions concerning the moral and ethical status of many people in our society as well as the authorities that allow these activities to take place. This also applies to the law which also seems to be blind to the plight of animals. In the incident of the pigeon killing mentioned above the Pennsylvania courts have to date refused to accept that such conduct violates the state anticruelty law. (ibid) This results in despair among many animal advocates as the legal system often seems unconcerned and unresponsive.

In asking the question why so few people actually care about animal cruelty, one can be possibly take a cynical attitude and view of human society. The fowling quotation outlines a rather bleak picture of human nature when it comes to the care for the world around them. This is quoted at length as it expresses an important aspect relating to the central thesis of this paper.

The fact that animals are voiceless is a relief to us; it frees us from feeling much empathy or sorrow. If animals did have voices, if they could speak with the tongues of angels-at the very least with the tongues of angels-it is unlikely that they could save themselves from mankind. Their mysterious otherness has not saved them, nor have their beautiful songs and coats and skins and shells, nor have their, strengths, their skills, their swiftness, the beauty of their flights. We discover the remarkable intelligence of the whale, the wolf, the elephant – it does not save them, nor does our awareness of the complexity of their lives. (Williams, Joy, 1997)

The reasons given in the above article for cruelty to animals is self-centeredness and selfishness.

Anything that is animal, that is not us, can be slaughtered as a pest or sucked dry as a memento or reduced to a trophy or eaten, eaten, eaten. For reasons of need – preference or availability. Or it’s culture, it’s a way to feed the poor, it’s different, it’s plentiful, it’s not plentiful, which makes it more intriguing, it arouses the palate, it amuses the palate,… it’s healthy, it’s somebody’s way of life, it’s somebody’s livelihood, it’s somebody’s business.(ibid)

This is a strongly worded statement and indictment of an uncaring humanity. However, bearing in mind the daily evidence of cruelty to animals one cannot but feel that there is an element of truth to this argument.

Commercial reasons for abuse

One of the central reasons or “justifications” for animal abuse and possibly why so many turn a blind eye to animal cruelty, is commerce and the profit motive.

The plain fact is that this country and other industrial countries are deeply dependent on animal exploitation to sustain their present economic structures. The plain fact is that we are more dependent on animal exploitation than were the states of the southern United States on human slavery. (Francione, G.)

Animals are essentially seen as property. While there are many laws designed to protect these animals these laws are also prejudiced towards the interests of the owners before the welfare of the animals. An example of the way animals are often treated only as commercial commodities is the following.

In Australia, lambs are put through a gruesome procedure called mulesing, in which huge chunks of skin are sliced from the animals’ backsides, with no painkillers given to the animals. Then, when their wool production declines, sheep are shipped to the Middle East on open-deck ships. These journeys, which can last months, are to countries where animal welfare standards are non-existent. So the suffering sheep are dragged off the ships, loaded into trucks, sometimes upside-down, and then have their throats slit while they are fully conscious. (United Cruelty of Benetton)

Agriculture, which is humanities oldest way of survival, previously meant a certain reciprocity and sense of care and dependence between the farmer and his animals. However, agriculture has now devolved into agribusiness and at no other time in history have farm animals been so badly treated. (ibid)

Another aspect which is related to commercialism is the creation of beauty products from animals -an aspect which reflects badly on the vanity of human nature.

Millions of Americans think they have discovered the fountain of youth in an injection of BOTOX®, whose key ingredient is botulinum toxin, the most poisonous substance known to mankind. Their mission to stop time, however, comes with a cost: An undisclosed number of mice suffer and die painfully in the testing phase of Botox. These animals die for nothing more important than to smooth out a few wrinkles. (Animals in Research)

Even technology is being harnessed in the search for pleasure and entertainment at the expense of animals. The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) recently exposed a plan to use the Internet as a means of hunting animals. Using the Web “users around the world would be able to log on to his website, pay a fee, and using the mouse on their computer, control a rifle mounted on a high-tech stand to aim, shoot and kill an animal.” (ASPCA Outraged at Texas Rancher’s Plan to Launch Internet Version of Canned Hunt, 2004)

5. Conclusion

There are many causes of animal cruelty. These range from the use of science to experiment on animals in order to produce cosmetics and drugs to enhance human life, to commercial legitimatization of animal abuse. Many Americans prefer not to see this cruelty and abuse and try to justify inhuman treatment by making arguments for commerce and scientific progress. What animal abuse does reveal is a sad reflection of human nature. In a country which prides itself on its civilized values and fairness there should be no reason or excuse for disregarding the rights of other living beings.

Bibliography

Animals in Research. Retrieved December 20, 2004 from The Human Society of the United States. Web site: http://www.hsus.org/animals_in_research/index.html www.unitedcrueltyofbenetton.com/introduction.aspx”

ANIMAL RIGHTS FAQ FILE.Retrieved December 20, 2004 from Animal Rights Com. Web site: http://www.animal-rights.com/arpage.htm

Columbia University Fined for Cruel Puppy Killings. Retrieved: December 20, 2004 from Columbia University Cruelty. Web Site: http://www.columbiacruelty.com/feat-pupkillings.asp

Francione, G. Animal Rights and the Future. Retrieved December 19, 2004 from Purify Our Mind. Web site: http://www.purifymind.com/AnimalFuture.htm

ASPCA Outraged at Texas Rancher’s Plan to Launch Internet Version of Canned Hunt. 2004. Retrieved December 21, 2004 from the ASPCA. Web site: http://www.aspca.org/site/News2?page=NewsArticle&id=18143

Live Cat Found In Freezer (2004) Retrieved December 20, 2004 from Animals Concerns Community. Web site: http://www.animalconcerns.org/external.html?www=http%3A//www.newsnet5.com/news/4015630/detail.html&itemid=200412220049160.0776072

United Cruelty of Benetton) Retrieved: December 21, 2004. Web site: http://www.unitedcrueltyofbenetton.com/index.ASPX (Williams, Joy, 1997) Retrieved December 19, 2004 from Animal Liberation Front. Web site: http://www.animalliberationfront.com/Philosophy/Morality/harpers.html


Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently
 

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects

Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.

Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!

Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.

Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.

Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.

Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.

Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!

Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.

Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper