Visual Communication: Theory, Methods and Media


Clinique can basically be described as a leading manufacturer of a wide range of cosmetics and skincare products. Over time, the company has carried out extensive marketing campaigns which in most cases target specific market segments. In this text, I discuss an advert of one of Clinique’s products going by the same name. The product in this case is designed to renew the skin bringing about a brighter and more vibrant skin.

Clinique: Skin Renewer

It can be noted that when it comes to the communication of its benefits, Clinique has done a great job. On the advert, we have two bold writings inscribed alongside the product label clearly communicating the benefits users of the product are to derive from the utilization of the same. These writings include the bolder “total turnaround” followed by the equally visible “visible skin renewer.” By reading these two writings, any prospective buyer of the product immediately captures the benefits of using the cream. Further, the advert goes a long way to differentiate itself from the wide range of other products in the marketplace through the use of the words “total” and “visible.” By using these distinctive words, the product sets itself apart from competitors by way of proclaiming its effectiveness in comparison to other similar products whose benefits may not be as “visible” or whose turnaround may not be as “total.”

According to McDonald and Dunbar (2004), segmentation can be looked at as a process where the main aim is to group buyers on the basis of their exhibition of similar needs. The Clinique product in this case targets female buyers. As Englis (1994) notes, while male traits seem to be more inclined towards dominance and instrumentality, female traits are depicted by warmth and expressiveness. This effectively means that adverts tailored for women tend to be more detailed and laced with symbolism. In the advert under consideration, we have a furry little chick included. The chick is symbolic as it represents both good and young looks. It hence clicks with the main aim the advert seeks to communicate – renewal. Further, it can be noted that the advert is more appealing to women by virtue of the inclusion of a furry animal. Ladies are known to love furry things and hence the inclusion of the same in the advert is guaranteed to catch their attention. In my own opinion, the advert is well designed to appeal to its target market and it does not in any way contain aspects which could end up bringing about negative emotions.

It can be noted that it is possible to redesign the advert to give it a look that is more universal without in any way affecting its effectiveness in regard to its target segment. To be more effective across the board, there could be a need to change the background. Efforts should be undertaken to make the background more vibrant to appeal to the other gender. The advertisement should also capture causality i.e. In terms of favorable outcomes. Smith (2005) notes that causality has become common as a form of visual argument where the aim is to denote favorable outcomes in terms of social status etc. However, clarity should be maintained in the redesigned advertisement so as not to water down its effectiveness. As Koekemoer and Bird (2004) state, adverts that strive to be appealing to everybody are less effective in the final analysis.


In conclusion, it can be noted that advertisements in most cases seek to capitalize on the existing differences in regard to how different genders process presented information. In my opinion, this is an issue that should be kept in mind when redesigning the advert under consideration in this text.

MARKETING PLANNING pls make uts original… life. Part 1: Identify a selection competitors (minimum 3 competitors) criteria price, quality, brand, level advertising, product range Using strategic positioning tools PLC, BCG matrix perceptual mapping, identify competitive advantage organization Part 2: Identify marketing objectives Ansoff’s growth matrix Part 3: Identify a growth strategy Ansoff’s growth matrix propose a short-term marketing strategy (marketing mix recommendations) target market.

Marketing planning

Competition and competitive advantage

Based on the nature of the products sold, as well as the means of targeting the customers, Innocent faces severe competition from three distinctive players:

Orchard House Foods Limited

Premier Foods Plc. And Wellness Foods Limited (Hoovers, 2011).

The competition posed by each of these entities is important, but it must also be noticed that each firm is characterized by its own strengths and weaknesses. At the level of Innocent, these are best observed through the lenses of the BCG matrix. The chart below indicates the BCG for the company and its products:

Adapted from Daft and Vershina’s Management, 2010

As the chart above indicates, Innocent possesses products in all categories of the BCG matrix, meaning that it can compete on various market segments. But aside from this, it also means that the company is able to follow any competitive strategy it wishes, as it is supported by its wide array of consumer products. In other words, the wide array of products allows Innocent to select its future strategic moves based on the features considered of most interest to the company, rather than such a strategy being imposed on grounds of product details. Specifically, the competitive advantage is represented by the wide product selection, coupled with the adjacent benefits it generates.

Part 2: Marketing objectives

Innocent’s future marketing strategies are influenced by the growth strategy it would implement, which is best assessed through the lenses of the Ansoff growth matrix, revealed below:

Kumar, 2010

Innocent’s marketing strategy for the future is that of increasing its presence within the markets in which it already operates, but with the aid of new products. This is the result of the company’s commitment to innovation and it translates into the strategic choice for the product development growth strategy.

The strategic choice for new product development creates a context in which innocent would retail within the same markets in which it is already present, but it would do so using new items. These new items can be either improved versions of the older products, or they can be totally new items. In the setting of commitment to innovation, but also high quality standards, Innocent would be expected to increase its market presence through both improvements and new product creations. This opportunity is quite unique as it allows Innocence to reshape the market to its advantage (Bock, 2010).

Part 3: Target market and growth strategy

In the context in which the product development strategy was selected as a suitable course of action for the future of Innocent Ltd., it is now necessary to devise a short-term plan of how this strategy would be applied. At this level, emphasis is being placed on the increased market presence of Innocent smoothies. These represent the cash cows of the company and their success within the market is guaranteed.

The product would be further improved by supplementary packaging to make it easier to handle and transport, and to as such become more appealing and convenient to the buyers. The selection of flavors would also increase. The prices would remain unchanged and the promotions would focus on the health benefits and good taste of the smoothies. More emphasis would however be placed on distribution so that the smoothies are more easily accessible.

The market to which these products would be addressed include women in the above average income category, who can afford to provide a healthy and conscious nutrition to their families. These customers are the primary shoppers for their households and they make most grocery related purchases (Pooler and Pooler, 2003). They are targeted as such because they complete the purchase and influence consumption by the households.


Bock, M., 2010, Governance risk management and financial product development in Islamic financial institutions, GRIN Verlag

Daft, K.M., Vershina, N.., 2010, Management, International edition, Cengage Learning EMEA

Kumar, D., 2010, Enterprise growth strategy: vision, planning and execution, Gower Publishing Ltd.

Pooler, J.A., Pooler, J., 2003, Why we shop: emotional rewards and retail strategies, Greenwood Publishing Group

2011, innocent ltd., Hoovers, last accessed on January 10, 2012

Englis, B.G. (1994). Global and Multinational Advertising. Routledge.

Koekemoer, L. & Bird, S. (2004). Marketing Communications. Juta and Company.

McDonald, M. & Dunbar, I. (2004). Market Segmentation: How to Do it, How to Profit From it. Butterworth-Heinemann.

Smith, K.L. (2005). Handbook of Visual Communication: Theory, Methods and Media. Routledge.

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